World Aquaculture - December 2023


WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • DECEMBER 2023 1 WORLD AQUACULTURE MAGAZINE WORLD AQUACULTURE magazine is published by the World Aquaculture Society. The home office address is: World Aquaculture Society, PO Box 397, Sorrento LA 70778-0397 USA. P and F: +1-225-347-5408; Email: World Aquaculture Society Home Page: WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY OFFICERS, 2023-24 Humberto Villarreal, President Jennifer Cobcroft Blair, Immediate Past President David Cline, President-Elect Reginald Blaylock, Treasurer Rumaitha Al Busaidi, Secretary DIRECTORS Victoria Tarus Hillary Egna Angela Caporelli Etienne Hinrichsen Shivaun Leonard Yahira Piedrahita Marina M. Rubio Benito, Student Director CHAPTER REPRESENTATIVES Foluke Omotayo Areola, African Salin Krishna, Asian Pacific Ik Kyo Chung, Korean Francisco Javier Martínez Cordero, Latin America and Caribbean Anita Kelly, USAS HOME OFFICE STAFF Judy Edwards Andrasko, Director, Killian A. Haydel, Assistant Director, WORLD AQUACULTURE EDITORIAL STAFF C. Greg Lutz, Editor-in-Chief Mary Nickum, Editor Linda Noble, Layout Editor WAS CONFERENCES AND SALES John Cooksey, Executive Director of Conferences and Sales World Aquaculture Conference Management P.O. Box 2302, Valley Center, CA 92082 P: +1-760-751-5005; F: +1-760-751-5003 Email: MANUSCRIPTS AND CORRESPONDENCE Submit manuscripts as Microsoft Word files to Mary Nickum, Editor, World Aquaculture magazine. Email: Letters to the Editor or other comments should be sent to the Editor-in-Chief, C. Greg Lutz at WORLD AQUACULTURE (ISSN 1041-5602), is published quarterly by the World Aquaculture Society, 6203 Jonathan Alaric Avenue, Gonzales, LA 70737 USA. Individual subscriptions are a benefit of membership in the World Aquaculture Society. Annual membership dues: Students, $45; Individuals, $90; Corporations, $295; Sustaining, $155 (individuals or non-profits); Lifetime (individuals) $1,400. ©2023, The World Aquaculture Society. W RLD AQUACULTURE VOL. 54 NO. 4 DECEMBER 2023 12 the Journal of the World Aquaculture Society Editor’s Choice Awards 17 Tropical Seaweed Cultivation in Hawai’i Simona Augyte, M.J. MacMahon, Trevor Chambers, Jennica Lowell-Hawkins and Neil A. Sims 22 World Aquaculture Trends and Future Prospects Albert G.J. Tacon PhD 26 Norway’s Experiment with Triploid Atlantic Salmon: From Small-scale Successes to the Suspension of Commercial Trials Thomas W. K. Fraser, Per Gunnar Fjelldal and Tom J. Hansen 32 A Hard Look at Environmental DNA Paul Zajicek and Nathan Stone 37 Aquaculture Gear Type Affects Eastern Oyster Growth and the Diversity of Aquatic Species Timothy J. Smoot and Edward A. Hale 43 Community-based Aquaculture in Floodplain Wetlands of Eastern India Rohan Kumar Raman, Vivekanand Bharti, Dhiraj Kumar Singh, Jaspreet Singh and Akram Ahmed 48 Unbundling sustainable community-based dam aquaculture for blue growth Christopher Mulanda Aura, Grace Njagi, Ruth Lewo Mwarabu, Chrisphine S. Nyamweya, Jane Fonda Awuor, Safina Musa, Collins Ongore, Sammy Macharia and James M. Njiru 55 Balancing Natural and Artificial Selection in Captive Rearing Programs Desmond J. Maynard 60 Potential of scallop aquaculture in the U. S. Virgin Islands (USVI) Destinee Turnbull, Gerson Martinez and Herbert Quintero 65 A New Paradigm in Offshore Macroalgae Farming: Reducing the Risk of Marine Mammal Entanglement Michael Chambers, Zach Moscicki, Peter Lynn, Tobias Dewhurst and Beth Zotter 68 Productivity of Micronutrients from Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture Systems Liz Ignowski and Ben Belton 72 Valorization of Seaweed Waste and its Potential Use C. Sathishkumar, G. Sanjay and Amit Ranjan COVER: A number of macroalgae culture methods are being evaluated at Ocean Era, Inc. in Hawai'i. See story, page 17. (CONTENTS CONTINUED ON PAGE 2)

2 DECEMBER 2023 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG Contents (continued) 2 President’s Column 3 Editor’s Note 5 USAS Chapter Report 6 African Chapter Report 8 Asian Pacific Chapter Report 10 Korean Chapter Report 12 Latin American and Caribbean Chapter Report 70 Conference Calendar 71 Future Conferences and Expositions 72 Membership Application President’s Column What’s next for Aquaculture? Diversification. FAO’s Biannual Food Outlook shows that aquaculture production has increased from 87.5 million tons in 2020 to 92 million tons in 2022. This represents an increase of around 5%, despite pressures associated with climate change, inflation, and a decline in demand. Average yearly seafood consumption has increased to over 20 Kg worldwide. While these numbers are good, production is not increasing at the desired rate to meet demand for additional aquaculture protein, which has been estimated at 40 million more tons by 2050. At present, 90% of aquaculture production comes from Asia and space limitations, property user conflicts, diseases and stagnated demand are limiting growth in that region. This represents an opportunity to diversify both producing regions and species around the world. So, can we meet future expectations? Can oceans and inland waters sustainably supply the growing demand for food? Is governance effective to regulate and manage aquaculture growth? Are incentives sufficient? In terms of species diversification, more than 400 species are being cultured. We must evaluate whether it is feasible to develop technologies for all of them that are economically viable, environmentally sustainable, and socially responsible, or whether we must concentrate in high-volume species. Considering that R&D investment for the agribusiness sector has been steadily declining for at least the last 5 decades, and that private investment for R&D in developing countries is still limited, we must prioritize the use of resources available for knowledge development and establish strong collaboration channels among research institutions and the relevant industry stakeholders to innovate production in the sector. While there have been significant production increases in several countries for some species, like salmon, shrimp, tilapia, and various mollusks, an analysis on why development in regions other than Asia has not advanced at the same rate is needed. Several years ago, I led a group of stakeholders in a diagnostic of the aquaculture industry for the Mexican Government. Among other things, it showed that inefficient public policy is often associated to a limited knowledge on the needs to successfully develop the sector. This results in deficient strategic planning and poor governance. On the other hand, lack of sufficient investment hinders industry consolidation, especially with regards to the use of state-of-theart knowledge-based technologies. Technology development and appropriation is limited not only by the lack of resources, but also by the lack of enough specialized human resources. At present, the industry involves around 20 million people. For an expected additional 40 million tons, we would require an additional 7 or 8 million specialists incorporated to the production chain. Innovation would also benefit from stronger extension services in every country. To deliver this new production to the end-user, we need to develop commercialization channels and markets, particularly for small producers. Finally, you cannot improve what you can’t evaluate. Better data analysis to facilitate decision making and management is required as is the need to enhance stakeholder communication and collaboration. The future of the aquaculture industry is bright, as it will be at the forefront of the solutions associated with high quality protein production, delivering healthy and nutritious fish and seafood to society. I expect that in the next few years we will see significant production increases in areas such as Latin America and Africa, and more efficient production in Asia. At the World Aquaculture Society, we strive to contribute to that effort. The World Aquaculture Society, as the most relevant aquaculture association worldwide, must facilitate the generation and dissemination of knowledge among its Members and the society in general, through conferences, workshops, and effective use of social networks. We now offer free WAS Membership to students worldwide, have an open-access Journal that is very well regarded by the scientific and industry communities and have also made the World Aquaculture Magazine open-to-the-public. After a very successful African Chapter Conference in Zambia, we now move to San Antonio in February to start the year, before visiting Indonesia in July, Copenhagen in August for AQUA 2024 and completing the year in Colombia at the end of September. We will deliver the best information available on aquaculture through these events, so please consider attending our regional and annual meetings. I encourage you as Members of our Society to identify areas where you can contribute to improve research, technology development and production innovation, and share your ideas and projects at our conferences and in our publications. Please contact me, or our Board, Chapter representatives and the World Aquaculture Magazine Editor, Prof. Greg Lutz, with your thoughts. I´m looking forward to meeting you at one of our next World Aquaculture or regional conferences. Cheers. — Humberto Villareal, President, World Aquaculture Society

WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • DECEMBER 2023 3 Editor’s Note As I’ve been reading industry news over the past several months I’m becoming increasingly convinced of the need for all of us to put more focus on “what works.” For more than a century in the U.S. and many other countries, agricultural demonstration projects and yield verification evaluations have proven invaluable because they illustrate what works… and what doesn’t. While technical advances in the field of aquaculture are increasingly proprietary and not necessarily freely available to just anyone, in the information age there are still opportunities to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility (or uncertainty) of most aquaculture projects. Promoters of aquaculture ventures generally believe their own projections, but in some instances this optimism is not based on facts. Trivers (2006) argued that self-deception leads to a more positive selfperception and a positive self-perception increases positive outcomes, such as persuading others to invest in an idea or project (Smith et al. 2017). However, if a concept isn’t technically feasible it won’t matter how sincere one is or how hard they wish for success. Add to that the fact that some of the people pursuing money for aquaculture ventures are, on occasion, not entirely sincere to begin with. Some investors perceive aquaculture as the next big thing and blindly take the bait (pun intended). One of the most important rules for any potential funding source is “do not invest in what you don’t understand” (Tillinghast 2017). Many high-profile aquaculture failures in recent years have been, arguably, ill-advised, poorly conceived, poorly executed and under-capitalized. Many investors have also neglected reasonable due diligence, but as a great philosopher once explained “should” implies “can.” The facts suggest most investors don’t know where to look for objective information on aquaculture or how to evaluate it. Oftentimes, they simply evaluate the experience of the management team when deciding whether to back a venture. Failure to focus on “what works” has also been seen countless times in aquaculture development initiatives in many nations, including both public sector projects and those overseen by NGOs. Several decades ago, the familiar pattern was the arrival of wellmeaning outsiders establishing infrastructure for fish farming that was subsequently abandoned when funding ran out, usually due to a lack of feed, fingerlings, or profitable value chains. Today, the problems are often more complex (Garcia and Fold 2021), but there is still a failure to consider or even understand “what works” in many instances (Minard 2015). In both developed and developing countries around the world, many bureaucrats in government agencies with aquaculture responsibilities also seem to lack an understanding of “what works.” A recent report by the European Court of Auditors drives this point home. Agency “plans” for aquaculture are often nothing more than a collection of lofty, poorly defined goals with little incorporation of synergism, accountability or evaluation mechanisms. In its most recent Aquaculture Plan, NOAA lays out a vision for “A thriving, resilient and inclusive U.S. aquaculture industry that supports jobs, expands access to nutritious domestic seafood, and reinforces healthy coastal and ocean ecosystems in a changing environment.” Well… what more could a stakeholder ask for, other than some details as to how the agency will make this happen? The question is vaguely addressed by the mission statement to “Provide science, services and policies that create conditions for opportunity and growth of sustainable U.S. aquaculture.” Goals such as “Use world-class science expertise to meet management and industry needs for a thriving seafood production sector and share this knowledge broadly” and “Facilitate a robust aquaculture industry that thrives as a key component of a resilient seafood sector” are highlighted throughout the document but specific strategies, responsibilities and evaluation metrics are not clearly presented. Interestingly, NOAA proposed an aquaculture plan some 46 years ago (to the month), with the stated objective “to provide the scientific, technical, legal, and institutional base needed for the development of aquaculture in cooperation with other agencies and groups, and to facilitate early application of research results by information dissemination and extension activities.” As the character Dr. Leonard McCoy observed in the 1986 film Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, “the bureaucratic mentality is the only constant in the universe.” Lofty goals similar to those of NOAA have been developed by governments in many countries. In an aquaculture plan for Scotland the Scottish government “supports the development of a sustainable aquaculture sector, operating within environmental limits, and recognises the considerable social and What works Tilapia production in Honduras. Photo by C. Greg Lutz. (CONTINUED ON PAGE 78)


WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • DECEMBER 2023 5 Contact Extru-Tech today at 785-284-2153 or visit us online at KEEP IT SINGLE. SINGLE SCREW MULTIPLE MARKETS SINGLE SCREW EXTRUSION SYSTEM OPTIMIZES FLEXIBILITY AND MARKET OPPORTUNITIES Optimize the return on your capital investment with a single screw extrusion system. Buy one system and cost-effectively deliver product to multiple market opportunities. • One system capable of economy up to super premium fresh meat petfood • Aquatic feeds that range from floating to sinking shrimp feed • Capitalize on high margin petfood treat opportunities • Significantly lower operating cost per ton versus competitive systems As the chart below demonstrates, an Extru-Tech Single Screw Extrusion System provides all the flexibility and production efficiencies at around half the cost of competitive extrusion systems with high operating costs. PREMIUM PETFOOD PETFOOD SNACKS AQUA FEED P.O. Box 8 100 Airport Road Sabetha, KS 66534, USA Phone: 785-284-2153 Fax: 785-284-3143 Capital Investment Extru-Tech Solution The Competition Operating Costs Ingredient Flexibility Complexity Operating Cost ($/M Ton) 1.0 1.0 Excellent Low 1.08 2.5 1.60 Excellent High 2.80 vs ET-337F.indd 1 1/28/21 8:31 AM the membership has responded. We want to hear from everyone, as the survey results will direct USAS to topics for future webinars, meeting places, and inform the Board of issues important to the membership. As the meeting in San Antonio approaches, the call for student judges will go out to the membership. If you are a member of USAS and not a student, please consider assisting with judging. We would like to have a minimum of three judges per presentation while minimizing the number of presentations for each judge. The only way to do this is to increase the number of individuals who agree to judge. The outlook for attendance at the meeting in San Antonio is looking good! I look forward to seeing everyone. As always, please get in touch with me or any board member with suggestions, questions, or concerns. — Anita Kelly, President U.S. Aquaculture Society As I enter the third quarter of my Presidency, I am reminded of the old saying that a professional society is only as good as its members. The ballot for various officers and Directors will be sent out soon. This ballot contains several individuals who have top-notch credentials. I would go on to say that it will be quite challenging to choose candidates for each position. As a member of USAS, you have a say in who those individuals will be, but only if you vote. Voting does not take a lot of time, and those chosen will shape the direction of USAS in the next few years. We often see less than 10% of the members vote. I challenge everyone to vote as this year's election will be close. Vote to keep the leadership strong and ensure the future success of USAS. The Promotion and Membership Committee has sent a new questionnaire for membership feedback. To date, less than 8% of CHAPTER REPORTS As a member of USAS, you have a say in who those individuals will be, but only if you vote. Voting does not take a lot of time, and those chosen will shape the direction of USAS in the next few years.

6 DECEMBER 2023 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG CHAPTER REPORTS Ms. Foluke Omotayo Areola is the new WAS African Chapter President, having been inaugurated at the most recent Aquaculture Africa (AFRAQ23) Conference in Lusaka Zambia (November 2023). Ms. Areola, a long serving WAS member, is a former Federal Director of Fisheries Quarantine in Nigeria (within the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development). She is also a former President of the Fisheries Society of Nigeria (FISON) and a Board Member to various organisations in the country. In her acceptance speech for the role of President, Ms. Areola underscored her vision to see African aquaculture flourishing within Africa’s blue economy agenda. Being an ardent proponent of sustainability in aquafoods systems, she aspires to focus her attention more to building capacity on the key subjects of aquaculture certification, standards, and best practises – as this will ensure African producers and processors, especially SMEs, are empowered to produce quality products that are competitive in both domestic and global markets. “I believe we can achieve this through the various blue economy aquaculture investment platforms, networks, and strategies - including the Africa Continental Free Trade aspirations. I call upon those interested in developing strategic programmes and activities to collaborate with us on this front”, says Ms. Areola. Ms. Areola also emphasised her desire to continue from where her predecessor Dr. Walakira left off, in advocating for enhanced roles of women and youth in aquaculture. “It is my desire to continue to consolidate and deepen my focus on these areas, capitalising on some of the platforms which we have established together with our partners, such as the African Women Fish Processors and Traders Network (AWFISHNET). I also plan to create a leadership academy for women in aquaculture, among various other capacitybuilding initiatives. The WAS strongly believes that the future of sustainable aquafoods systems rests in the youth. To this end, I aspire to see aquaculture providing opportunities for our youth to engage in entrepreneurship and innovation. Our youth could in turn contribute to making aquaculture ‘smart’ through digitization and innovative solutions. We also believe that the recently launched WAS free membership policy and platforms for students will go a long way in building the next generation of aquaculture actors” says Ms. Areola. In his handover speech, the outgoing WAS-AC President, Dr. John Walakira, lauded the appointment of the first female candidate to the role of President for WAS-AC, as this accentuated inclusiveness in terms of gender balance and outreach to the West African region. He was overly grateful to all Chapter membership and stakeholders for working diligently on many fronts during his term. This has now seen the Chapter growing from strength to strength, with many strategic events and activities now visible as the Chapter celebrates five years of existence. WAS-AC was formally established in November 2018. Following a successful election period in October 2023, other Board Members inaugurated during the occasion included; Dr. Khalid Salie (South Africa) to President-Elect and Dr. Nevine Shabana (Egypt) and Mr. Lanre Badmus (Nigeria) were re-elected as Regional Directors for North and West Africa respectively. Dr. Victoria Tarus (Kenya), was elected to be Regional Director for the Eastern Africa region following the retirement from the Board of Dr. Nelly Isyagi (Uganda). The inauguration also saw Dr. Sherif Sadek (Egypt) now being elevated to the new title of “President Emeritus!” while Dr. Walakira (Uganda) now takes on the role of Immediate Past President. Dr. Kevan Main (USA) continues her role as Chapter’s Strategic Advisor. The rest of the current Board members include Dr. Bernice Mclean (AUDA-NEPAD) as Treasurer, Dr. Festus Adeosun (Nigeria) as Secretary and Dr. Francisca Delgado (Angola) as Regional Director for Central Africa Region. Meanwhile, Dr. Khalid Salie (South Africa) will continue his role as Regional Director for Southern Africa until a new Director is elected. Mr. Blessing Mapfumo remains the Executive Officer of the Chapter, managing the Chapter’s Secretariat. The 2nd Aquaculture Africa Conference (AFRAQ23), which took place on 13-16 November 2023 in Lusaka, Zambia was a great success as it brought together nearly 1200 industry, academic, government, and development partner delegates from 73 countries, mostly in Africa and from across the world. The well-organised exhibition platform featured 55 booths from 22 countries. In addition to networking opportunities which the conference rendered, the scientific/technical programme featured 44 sessions, 225 abstracts and 49 posters. WAS-AC is overly grateful to all Conference organisers, the gold sponsor (Aller Aqua); silver sponsors (WISSH GIZ and WorldFish) and several other conference partners and the attendees at large. Much gratitude goes to the government of Zambia for successfully hosting this event. More highlights about the Conference will be available in the next issue. — Foluke Omotayo Areola, President African Chapter WAS-AC Board of Directors and Secretariat 2023


8 DECEMBER 2023 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG CHAPTER REPORTS Asian Pacific Chapter Since the APA 2023 Conference in Darwin, WAS APC has continued its association with three major conferences, partnering with the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT). The International Conference on Fisheries and Aquaculture (ICFA 2023), held in Bali, Indonesia (24 – 26 October 2023); the International Fisheries Symposium (IFS 2023) from 22 – 24 November 2023; and the GIANT PRAWN 2023 conference from 27 – 29 November in Bangkok. Free WAS-APC booth space was provided by AIT, which helped to generate several membership interests among students, university faculty, and private industry representatives. The IFS 2023 was the annual conference of the ASEANFisheries Education Network (ASEAN-FEN) hosted by AIT in Bangkok, Thailand. We organized a special ASEAN student Congress as part of the IFS 2023 Conference at Novotel Future Park Hotel in Bangkok. Nearly 60 students from several universities in Asia attended this event. Dr. Fanny Yasumaru, WAS-APC Student Director, and Dr. Bibha Kumari, WAS-APC President-elect, coordinated this event, with their travel supported by AIT and the Aquaculture Innovation Centre, Singapore. This was an engaging event with a quiz program and talent show for students following the promotion of the Asian Pacific Aquaculture (APA) 2024. AIT offered five free registrations for attending APA 2024 for the winners of these competitions. Promotion of APA 2024 was also done at the gala dinner organized as part of the IFS and GIANT PRAWN 2023 conferences. The APC Board had its regular meeting schedules in a virtual mode. A major focus of these discussions was to identify more effective ways of communicating with the members, such as revitalizing the social media platforms and other channels. We also continued the engagement with representatives of the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICT). The dates for the next Asian-Pacific Aquaculture Conference (APA 2024) have been revised and are now scheduled for 2-5 July in Surabaya, Indonesia. Attendance and interest are expected to increase for APA 2024. The Program Committee has begun the session planning, and we request WAS-APC members to help coordinate APA 2024 sessions and encourage more participation from their networks. — Krishna Salin, President WAS-APC Booth at IFS 2023 and GIANT PRAWN 2023 conferences, Bangkok, Thailand. WAS-APC Student event as part of IFS 2023 Conference, Bangkok, Thailand. CALLING ALL READERS Do you have something you would like to contribute to World Aquaculture? We welcome general features, articles and news covering a variety of aquaculture-related topics, preferably well-illustrated with photographs and line art. Published quarterly, the magazine keeps WAS members up to date with research results and reviews of aquaculture trends and topics. Guidelines for authors are available here. Submit manuscripts to Mary Nickum, Editor, World Aquaculture Magazine, at Please copy C. Greg Lutz, Editor in Chief, at when emailing your submission.


10 DECEMBER 2023 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG CHAPTER REPORTS Record High $700M K-Gim Exports The Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF, Minister Cho Seung-Hwan) announced on November 10 that Korea’s Gim (edible seaweeds) exports amounted to about $700.89 million, surpassing the export performance in 2021 ($690 million), the highest performance ever. In the past, Gim (laver) was mainly consumed as a side dish for rice, but recently, it has become popular overseas as a low-calorie health food, and the global laver market is snowballing. Following this trend, our Gim industry is capturing the tastes of people around the world through continuous product development, such as developing laver snacks with barbecue, cheese, and bulgogi flavors and launching laver wrapped in pork belly in line with the globalization of Korean food. The MOF is also working to expand overseas markets by actively supporting the Gim industry in obtaining international certification, providing export vouchers, holding overseas trade consultations, and conducting radiation safety tests to foster our K-Gim as a global favorite food. As a result of these efforts, Gim exports expanded to countries such as Southeast Asia and Europe, including the United States (USD 143 million, 8.3% ↑), Korea’s No. 1 seaweed export country, increasing the number of Gim export destinations from 64 countries in 2010 to 120 countries in 12 years. It resulted in a nearly two-fold expansion. Minister Cho Seung-Hwan said, “Gim is contributing greatly to the development of the national economy as the entire process, including production, processing, and distribution, is carried out domestically, and the economic effects of exports are returned as is.” He added, “Achieving the highest export performance in history. To continue the excellent trend and achieve $1 billion in seaweed exports by 2027, we will continue the reputation of Korean Gim in the global market by promoting the 1st Basic Plan for the Promotion of Korea’s Gim Industry, announced on September 11 without a hitch.” (MOF press lease Nov. 10, 2023) Seafood Origin Identification Simplified with AI Technology The National Institute of Fisheries Science (NIFS, President Woo Dong-Sik) announced that it had developed a genetic analysis method that can quickly determine the country of origin of salted shrimp using machine learning technology, a field of artificial intelligence (AI), on October 24. Salted shrimp is a major fishery product for making Kimchi, and its demand increases from November when the Kimchi season begins. As a result, cheap imported salted shrimp is sold to consumers under the guise of domestic production. However, it isn’t easy to distinguish between domestic and imported shrimp with the naked eye. The shape may vary depending on the manufacturing method, so it is possible to determine the country of origin only through genetic testing. The current technology for determining the origin of shrimp requires professional knowledge to analyze and interpret the specific gene sequence of the target species, and it takes more than seven days to determine. This technology uses an analysis kit to analyze the DNA barcode features and patterns of seafood. It automates the process of interpreting the results by computer, cutting the analysis period in half and making it easier for non-experts to use, enabling faster and more accurate determination of the origin of shrimp. The NIFS is applying for a patent on a technology to determine the origin of salted shrimp using machine learning and plans to provide technology training and technology transfer to related organizations. Dr. Kim Young-Ok (Head of the Biotechnology Division, NIFS) said, “We expect that marine product identification technology using artificial intelligence will improve the quality and stability of products by providing quick and accurate country of origin information to the fishery industry and consumers. In addition, we will strive to apply this technology to various marine products and food fields.” Establishment of a New Marine BioBank of Antibiotic Materials The Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF, Minister Cho Seung-hwan) discovered antibiotic materials with excellent antibacterial properties from marine life resources, established a new marine biobank, and promoted free distribution for commercialization starting on November 27. The National Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea (MABIK, President Choi Wan-hyun) under the MOF has established and operated the Marine BioBank that discovers valuable materials from marine life resources and provides them to companies, including extracts (2018), genetic resources (2019), microorganisms (2019), microalgae (2020), and cosmetics (2022). This time, the MABIK has recently established a new antibiotic marine biobank by discovering 1,120 substances that can be utilized as antibiotic materials due to their excellent antibacterial functions, such as Mojaban (Sargassum sp.) living off the coast of Korea and along the southern coast. The Marine BioBank of Antibiotic Materials Korean Chapter “Gim is contributing greatly to the development of the national economy as the entire process, including production, processing, and distribution, is carried out domestically, and the economic effects of exports are returned as is. Achieving the highest export performance in history. To continue the excellent trend and achieve $1 billion in seaweed exports by 2027, we will continue the reputation of Korean Gim in the global market by promoting the 1st Basic Plan for the Promotion of Korea’s Gim Industry, announced on September 11 without a hitch.” — MINISTER CHO SEUNG-HWAN

WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • DECEMBER 2023 11 CHAPTER REPORTS provides information such as antibacterial efficacy grades (A to C grades) for six types of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the 1,120 items and distributes physical resources. Companies and universities that wish to have resources can apply through the Marine Biobank ( Minister Cho Seung-hwan (MOF) said, “Following last year’s Marine Biobank for cosmetics, we have established a function- and efficacy-focused antibiotic material bank this year to actively support the revitalization of related industries and commercialization of products.” He added, “We will continue to promote the marine bio-industry by expanding marine biobanks related to various materials.” Growing Seaweed to Combat Climate Crisis Korea Agro-Fisheries & Food Trade Corporation (aT) seeks to foster the seaweed industry with the World Bank. Mr. Kim Chunjin, CEO of Korea Agro-Fisheries & Food Trade Corporation (aT), met with Mr. Christopher Brett, Director of the World Bank’s Agriculture and Environment Department, and officials to discuss the value of seaweed as a sustainable future food resource in response to the climate crisis at the aT Center in Seoul on Sep. 22. They agreed to cooperate actively to foster and develop the seaweed industry. At the meeting, Mr. Kim (CEO, aT) said, “31 percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions come from food,” and added, “We will strive to foster and develop the blue food industry, such as seaweed, to promote the excellence of blue food and its value as a low-carbon food and to spread a global carbon-neutral practice culture.” He also explained the promotion of the Low Carbon Diet Practice Campaign with more than 540 partner companies in 30 countries to reduce carbon emissions from the entire food process. He urged them to collaborate to create a healthy planet through ESG practices such as spreading the campaign. Meanwhile, the World Bank predicted that the world’s top 10 new seaweed markets will continue to grow to $11.8 billion by 2030 and evaluated seaweed as a carbon sink and a sustainable future food resource that benefits marine biodiversity. In addition, he said that he would do his best to create a sustainable world across the social, environmental, and economic spheres, seeing seaweed as a source of food security beyond food, as well as an alternative to future bio-fibers, plastics, and pharmaceuticals. KOSFAS 2023 Annual Conference & Awards Winners The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (KOSFAS) held the annual conference and business meeting at BEXCO and the Pukyong National University in Busan on November 2-3 during the KOFFST International Conference 2023. Prof. Lim Han-Kyu (Mokpo National Univ.) was elected as the president of the KOSFAS for 2024, and Dr. Choi Jung Hwa (National Institute of Fisheries Science) as the president-elect at the KOSFAS annual business meeting. The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (KOSFAS) announced the KOSFAS and Sajo Fisheries Awards winners, which honored the achievements, science, and technology development at the KOSFAS International Conference 2023. Prof. Kim Young-Mog (Pukyong National Univ.) received the Won JongHoon Academic Award. Prof. Park Won Kyu (Pukyong National Univ.) received the KOSFAS Achievement Merit Awards for his service to the president. Sajo Fisheries Academic Awards went to Prof. Eom Sung Hwan (Dong-Eui Univ.) and Prof. Hur Jun Wook (Kunsan National Univ.). Sajo Fisheries Young Scientists Awards went to Dr. Jeon Bok Soon (National Institute of Fisheries Science) and Dr. Oh Jae Young (National Institute of Fisheries Science). The Sajo Fisheries Technology Promotion Award went to Mr. Park Yong Joon (CEO, Samjin Food Co. Ltd.) and Dr. Seo Yun Ki (CEO, AQUANET Co.). The FAS Most Cited Award went to Prof. Lee Kyeong-jun (Jeju National University), and the Appreciation Plaque went to Mr. Im Hyohyuc (CEO, Korea Ocean Meteorological Technology). The Sajo Fisheries Awards have been given by the Sajo Group, a world-class comprehensive food company, leading food culture with a passion for providing safety, health, and pleasure of life to family tables, based on a family-like corporate culture and constant challenge for the future. — Ik Kyo Chung, President World Aquaculture Society Student Association The World Aquaculture Society Student Association is composed of students and senior WAS members dedicated to providing students with beneficial opportunities during conferences and throughout the year. During WAS chapter and annual meetings, the Student Activities Committee organizes special workshops and seminars, provides complimentary roommate services, hosts student socials, and provides helpful information for all students. Since its beginning, the membership in WAS has grown to more than 3,000 members in about 100 countries representing the global aquaculture community. Learn more here.

12 DECEMBER 2023 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG So many challenges exist in our region for the sustainable development of aquaculture. Not only are we lacking behind the 2030 SDGs, but the impacts of Climate Change are manifesting in a faster way than anticipated, urging a very efficient response and articulation of actors. Mainly, the situation demands quick decisions from our governments to find solutions. Governance is critical in the real capacity of governments to head efforts to tackle these emerging problems. Our Chapter is working, through its Board Members and other active players, in helping these efforts at National levels. And we will dedicate the required time and focus to the main elements of these problems, to be analyzed in our forthcoming Regional Conferences. With the slogan “Aquaculture in Latin America: Innovation and sustainability for a global aquaculture,” our LACQUA24 is taking form in a wonderful way. It will be the product of many local efforts, headed by our two Board Directors Dr. Adriana Muñoz in the academics field, and Dr. Paola Barato, also in academia but mainly in the industry sector. And also, with the assistance of Carolina Amezquita from our LACC Secretariat. Colombia has always been a regional leader in aquaculture, with a very strong system of Universities and academics. Colombia is also a leader in the tilapia industry. Our Colombian colleagues will organize a very complete Scientific Program for the Conference, and the Industry Program will touch the most important topics for aquaculture in the region. Please plan and mark your calendars, and join us in Medellín, 24-27 September 2024. It will be a unique opportunity to discuss all the challenges for our regional aquaculture and continue collaborative efforts. For the first time in the history of our Chapter, we are formally incorporating into our Board a Student Representative from the country hosting the conference, so she/he can develop different activities for student representation and involvement in the Conference and the Regional Chapter in general. Following what is already currently done in the WAS Board, we will continue to have a student representative participating in our Board and planning future Conferences with us. In this same focus, in September we visited Puerto Varas and Puerto Montt in Chile, the site for our LACQUA 2025 Conference during the first week of October (date to be confirmed later in 2024). We were introduced to local stakeholders and authorities, including Salmon Chile, all of whom manifested their support and interest for our Regional Conference. Chile has always been a target to host our WAS Conferences, and we are delighted that the site is confirmed now. Chilean academics will join forces to promote the event among students, a very important sector for aquaculture development throughout the world. The Salmon industry is very experienced in organizing toplevel aquaculture events in Chile. We hope to see all of you in Medellín, Colombia, September 24-27 for LACQUA 2024!!!! — Francisco Javier Martinez Cordero, President Latin American and Caribbean Chapter CHAPTER REPORTS


14 DECEMBER 2023 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG • Vera, L., Aguilar Galarza, B., Reinoso, S., BohorquezCruz, M., Sonnenholzner, S., & Argüello-Guevara, W. (2023). Determination of acute toxicity of unionized ammonia in juvenile longfin yellowtail (Seriola rivoliana). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1110–1120. Available at: This study provides an important assessment of unionized ammonia (NH3-N) and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) toxicity for juvenile longfin yellowtail, Seriola rivoliana. The authors assessed the median lethal concentration (LC50) after a 96 h exposure of triplicate groups of fish to different ammonia concentrations: 0.55 ± 0.00; 0.94 ± 0.02; 1.18 ± 0.00; 1.72 ± 0.02, and 1.97 ± 0.09 NH3-Nmg/L. A control group (0.00±0.00 NH3-Nmg/L) was also included and the 96h LC50 for unionized ammonia was found to be 0.58mg/L for S. rivoliana. Clinical toxicity was evident in fish exposed to different concentrations and appeared as specific lesions on gill tissues; characterized by hyperplasia, epithelial lifting, and secondary lamellae fusion. Irreversable damage was evident along with erratic behavioral signs that included swimming in circles and hyperventilation. The goal of this study was to provide a first-hand evaluation of the effects of unionized ammonia on S. rivoliana and establish parameters for proper water quality management. The findings suggest that a concentration that does not exceed 0.06mg/L or 1.68mg/L for unionized ammonia or TAN, respectively, is safe for rearing juvenile S. rivoliana at a salinity of 32g/L, pH8, and 25°C water temperature. This study provides valuable baseline water quality data for this marine species and will be important for intensive and semi-intensive culture of S. rivoliana. • Pham Thi, H. H., Kim, D.-H., Quach Van, C. T., Nguyen, P. T., & Nguyen, T. L. (2023). Prevalence and antibiotic resistance the Journal of the World Aquaculture Society Editor’s Choice Awards 54(5) of Aeromonas schubertii causing internal white spot disease on snakehead fish, Channa striata, in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1260–1276. Available at: Snakehead, Channa striata, are a high-value and popular aquaculture species but have had a long history of invasion in the Mekong Delta and other regions of the world resulting in negative impacts on native aquatic species biodiversity. A bacterial disease known as internal white spot disease caused by Aeromonas schubertii is a major problem in the production of snakehead. This study was aimed at characterizing the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial isolates collected from farms in the Mekong Delta region due to the potential public health concern should multiantibiotic resistant (MAR) bacteria spread to wild populations or to consumers. Isolates were collected from white nodules in affected fish and identified based on morphological and biochemical tests, combined with an analysis of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, and rpoD). Disease causing isolates were strongly identified as A. schubertii, and it was found that all isolates (n = 25) were phenotypically multidrug-resistant, with resistance to erythromycin (84%), rifampicin (84%), flumequine (88%), amoxicillin (96%), ciprofloxacin (92%), and florfenicol (92%). The MAR indices ranged from 0.33 to 0.92, with one isolate of A. schubertii showing resistance to 11 of the 12 antibiotics tested. Further hierarchical clustering analysis of antibiotic-resistant bacteria suggested the potential to spread between ponds/fish farms and the ability for bacteria to survive for up to 3 months in aquatic environments. These results suggest that the diversity of MAR A. schubertii in snakehead represents a potential risk to native aquatic organisms and consumers, and emphasize the need for judicious use of antibiotics in aquaculture to limit the development of MAR bacterial species. Table of Contents Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 54(5) Your society journal JWAS is fully available to you including all back issues at or at (just click on the photo of JWAS). Editorial Villarreal,H. (2023) Shrimp farming advances, challenges, and opportunities, 54(5), 1092–1095. Applied Studies Buchalla, Y., McGuigan, C. J., Stieglitz, J. D., Hoenig, R. H., Tudela, C. E., Darville, K. G., Ibarra-Castro, L., & Benetti, D. (2023). Advancements in hatchery production of red snapper Lutjanus campechanus: Exclusive use of small strain rotifers as initial prey for larval rearing. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1096–1109. * Vera, L., Aguilar Galarza, B., Reinoso, S., Bohorquez-Cruz, M., Sonnenholzner, S., & Argüello-Guevara, W. (2023). Determination of acute toxicity of unionized ammonia in juvenile longfin yellowtail (Seriola rivoliana). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1110–1120. jwas.12971 Zaman, M. F. U., & Cho, S. H. (2023). Dietary inclusion effect of various sources of phyto-additives on growth, feed utilization, body composition, and plasma chemistry of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), and challenge test against Edwardsiella tarda compared to a commercial probiotic (super lacto®). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1121–1136. https://doi. org/10.1111/jwas.12978 Kim, J., & Cho, S. H. (2023). Inclusion effect of jack mackerel, Trachurus japonicus, meal in the diet of rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli, on growth, feed utilization, biochemical composition, and innate immune responses. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1137–1161. Chen, Z., Ibrahim, U. B., Yu, A., Wang, L., & Wang, Y. (2023). Dried porcine soluble benefits to increase fish meal replacement with soy protein concentrate in large yellow croaker Larimichthys

WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • DECEMBER 2023 15 The Journal of the World Aquaculture Society (JWAS) JWAS is a scientific journal devoted to the advancement of technological innovations and solutions to major issues facing the growth of global aquaculture. For over four decades, JWAS has represented the part of the World Aquaculture Society’s overall mission. JWAS seeks manuscripts related to all aspects of ecologically, socially and economically sustainable production of all aquatic species worldwide. Learn more here. crocea diet. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1162–1178. Chen, Z., Yu, A., Wang, L., Lei, M., Li, P., & Wang, Y. (2023). Reassessment of dietary protein and lipid requirements for large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea, reared in net pens. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1179–1195. https://doi. org/10.1111/jwas.13013 Suloma, A., Mabroke, R. S., Khattab, M. S., Salaah, S. M., ElHusseiny, O. M., & Eid, A. (2023). A step toward a biofloc system with no-carbon addition: Increasing dietary lipid level enhances the water quality and body chemical composition without affecting tilapia health status. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1196–1216. Paul, A. T., Hannon, C., ˇSvonja, M., Connellan, I., & Frias, J. (2023). Efficacy of microplastic depuration on two commercial oyster species from the west coast of Ireland. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1217–1234. jwas.12989 Gwo, J.-C., Twan, W.-H., & Lin, S.-C. (2023). Cryopreservation of six marine microalgae used in Taiwanese aquaculture. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1235–1246. https://doi. org/10.1111/jwas.12957 Fundamental Studies Richardson, B. M., Reifers, J. G., Walker, C. M., Byars, T. S., Mischke, C. C., Griffin, M. J., & Wise, D. J. (2023). Evaluation of a snail trap prototype for monitoring the intermediate gastropod hosts of Bolbophorus spp. in commercial catfish ponds of the southeastern United States. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1247–1259. * Pham Thi, H. H., Kim, D.-H., Quach Van, C. T., Nguyen, P. T., & Nguyen, T. L. (2023). Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Aeromonas schubertii causing internal white spot disease on snakehead fish, Channa striata, in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1260–1276. Romano, N. (2023). Aquaponic production of strawberries: Influence of boron and media on their mineral and sugar composition. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1277–1288. Gou, N., Wang, K., Jin, T., & Yang, B. (2023). Effects of overwintering on proximate composition, fatty acid composition, serum parameters, antioxidant status, and lipid metabolism in Onychostoma macrolepis. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1289–1300. Ahmed, I., Khan, Y. M., Lateef, A., Jan, K., Majeed, A., & Shah, M. A. (2023). Effect of fish meal replacement by Azolla meal on growth performance, hemato-biochemical and serum parameters in the diet of scale carp, Cyprinus carpio var. communis. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1301–1316. https://doi. org/10.1111/jwas.12995 Sun, Y., Huang, H., Li, B., Su, L., Deng, J., & Cao, Z. (2023). Effects of dietary lysine level on the growth performance, protein metabolism, and antioxidant status in Hemibagrus wyckioides juveniles. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1317– 1336. Wang, J., Luo, D., & Liu, J. (2023). Nitrogen and phosphorus budgets of a polyculture system containing Penaeus vannamei, Siganus guttatus, and Selenotoca multifasciata. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1337–1353. https://doi. org/10.1111/jwas.12960 Xing-Guo, L., Hong-ye, S., Zhao-jun, G., Guofeng, C., Jie, W., & Hao, Z. (2023). The environmental impact and development direction of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, aquaculture. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1354–1366. Xie, S., Wang, D., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Zuo, Z., Ye, B., Lu, L., Zhou, A., & Zou, J. (2023). Genome-wide comparative analysis between Cranoglanis bouderius and Pangasianodon hypophthalmus: Reveal the genes related to resistance to low-temperature stress. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1367–1385. Liu, X., Li, X., Zhang, D., Lin, T., & Li, S. (2023). Effects of different temperatures and diets on nutritional and bio-functional components in the juvenile lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1386– 1406. Lee, H. B., Jang, H. S., Oh, Y. D., Lee, Y. H., & Lim, H. K. (2023). Analysis of the physiological responses of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) to various stressors to identify a suitable stress indicator. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(5), 1407–1426. * Editor’s choice paper