World Aquaculture Magazine - March 2024

VOLUME 55, NUMBER 1 THE MAGAZINE OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY MARCH 2024 W RLD AQUACULTURE WHAT GETS MEASURED GETS MANAGED: Global Salmon Initiative and World Wildlife Fund Release Environmental, Social and Governance Feed Ingredient Risk Tool

WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • MARCH 2024 1 WORLD AQUACULTURE MAGAZINE WORLD AQUACULTURE magazine is published by the World Aquaculture Society. The home office address is: World Aquaculture Society, PO Box 397, Sorrento LA 70778-0397 USA. P and F: +1-225-347-5408; Email: World Aquaculture Society Home Page: WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY OFFICERS, 2023-24 Humberto Villarreal, President Jennifer Cobcroft Blair, Immediate Past President David Cline, President-Elect Reginald Blaylock, Treasurer Rumaitha Al Busaidi, Secretary DIRECTORS Victoria Tarus Hillary Egna Angela Caporelli Etienne Hinrichsen Shivaun Leonard Yahira Piedrahita Marina M. Rubio Benito, Student Director CHAPTER REPRESENTATIVES Foluke Omotayo Areola, African Salin Krishna, Asian Pacific Ik Kyo Chung, Korean Francisco Javier Martínez Cordero, Latin America and Caribbean Abigail Bockus, USAS HOME OFFICE STAFF Judy Edwards Andrasko, Director, Killian A. Haydel, Assistant Director, WORLD AQUACULTURE EDITORIAL STAFF C. Greg Lutz, Editor-in-Chief Mary Nickum, Editor Cecilia C. Nichols, Editorial Assistant Linda Noble, Layout Editor WAS CONFERENCES AND SALES John Cooksey, Executive Director of Conferences and Sales World Aquaculture Conference Management P.O. Box 2302, Valley Center, CA 92082 P: +1-760-751-5005; F: +1-760-751-5003 Email: MANUSCRIPTS AND CORRESPONDENCE Submit manuscripts as Microsoft Word files to C. Greg Lutz at AND Mary Nickum at Letters to the Editor or other comments should be sent to the Editor-in-Chief at WORLD AQUACULTURE (ISSN 1041-5602), is published quarterly by the World Aquaculture Society, 6203 Jonathan Alaric Avenue, Gonzales, LA 70737 USA. Individual subscriptions are a benefit of membership in the World Aquaculture Society. Annual membership dues: Students, $45; Individuals, $90; Corporations, $295; Sustaining, $155 (individuals or non-profits); Lifetime (individuals) $1,400. ©2024, The World Aquaculture Society. W RLD AQUACULTURE VOL. 55 NO. 1 MARCH 2024 14 the Journal of the World Aquaculture Society Editor’s Choice Awards 17 Aquaculture Africa 2024 Conference scheduled for Tunisia in November 2024 20 The Danish Aquaculture Sector — Limited in its Growth Potential, But with a Global Outreach Per Bovbjerg Pedersen and Mette Kristensen 27 Indonesia: Emerging as a Leader in Aquaculture Vergina Andini 33 “What Gets Measured Gets Managed” Aquaculture ESG Feed Ingredient Risk Tool Danny Miller, Sophie Ryan, Kristina Furnes, Tor Eirik Homme 39 Sustainability of the Sub-Saharan African Aquaculture Value Chain: A Review Nkhoswe James, Bader Sumeya, Nyauchi Elizabeth, Lemma Yordanos, Ong’ondo Geoffrey and Geremew Akewake 46 Apple Snails: Discussions of Past Problems and Future Solutions for an Emerging Pest in United States Agriculture/Aquaculture Bradley M. Richardson, Robert H. Cowie, Blake E. Wilson, Kenneth A. Hayes, James E. Byers, Jiangxiao Qiu, T. Graham Rosser, Charles C. Mischke, Romi L. Burks, Julian M. Lucero, Amy L. Roda 51 Chital Fish Farming: A Lucrative Venture for Livelihood Enhancement and Aquaculture Diversification in India Chandan Debnath 56 Azolla in AquaFeeds for Profitability and Sustainability of Aquaculture Vivekanand Bharti, Kamal Sarma, Tarkeshwar Kumar, S. K. Ahirwal and Jaspreet Singh 60 Fate of Melamine in Aquatic Environments Swaraj Adakney, Vidya Shree Bharti, Shamika Shantaram Sawant and Aditi Banasure 64 The Role of the Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute in Technology Innovation Yahia Mahmud, Md. Hashmi Sakib and Al-Amin 68 Recent Steps Toward Closing the Life Cycle of the European Eel (Anguilla anguilla) in RAS Camillo Rosso COVER: The newly released Aquaculture ESG Feed Ingredient Risk Tool sets an important precedent for all aquaculture sectors. See story on page 33. Photo courtesy Grieg Seafood (CONTENTS CONTINUED ON PAGE 2)

2 MARCH 2024 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG Contents (continued) 2 President’s Column 3 Editor’s Note 5 USAS Chapter Report 6 Asian Pacific Chapter Report 9 African Chapter Report 10 Latin American and Caribbean Chapter Report 12 Korean Chapter Report 70 Conference Calendar 71 Future Conferences and Expositions 72 Membership Application President’s Column program needs specialists in reproduction, nutrition, physiology, pathology, system design, production and later, genetics, genomics, immunology, bioeconomics, etc. The investment is significant in money and time, so public policy needs to be defined as soon as possible in countries willing to develop aquaculture (all?). Then, integration of this knowledge into a technology for a particular species is like a fish spine. You need talented people that can accommodate this knowledge puzzle to develop a specific technology. But once you have a technology, the challenge is still significant. While extension programs in some countries (i.e. USA), have been very successful for the Academic-Industry relationship, as sustainable production technologies become more complex (intensification, automation, use of data management for risk analysis) it requires better trained farm personnel. This establishes the need for more complete aquaculture training programs at community colleges and technical schools. Once again, time and resources are needed. Seven million trained people looks more and more like a significant challenge. At the World Aquaculture Society, the Board of Directors is very focused on developing strategies to divulge knowledge from our members more effectively. Of course, the Annual World Meeting and the Regional Conferences are very important. Our open access Scientific Journal (JWAS) and the World Aquaculture Magazine are aimed at delivering up-to-date, state-of-the-art information for the industry. We recently began offering a free WAS Membership for all students wishing to belong to the Society. Presently, we have a very strong web page and interaction strategy dedicated 100% for students from all over the world to exchange information. At the meeting in San Antonio, we also decided that we need to improve our communication through social media and develop webinars showcasing our most influential members, so expect more news soon. Early in the year, I had the opportunity to attend the Women in Ocean Food Studio event in La Paz, BCS, Mexico. Organized by HATCH Blue and Conservation International, it showcases projects in aquaculture led by women in Latin America. The first iteration was very strong, with more than 140 projects submitted for consideration. A very thoughtful presentation from Ms. Christina Walton set the stage for aquaculture development with purpose. The finalists showcased their businesses in several areas with very impressive presentations The future of aquaculture. The challenge of human resources. After Aquaculture America 2024, held successfully in San Antonio, Texas, last month, I was reflecting on the needs to develop a sustainable industry that can increase production by 50% in the next 25 years. We all know that Asia is the main supplier of aquaculture products (around 90%). At the World Aquaculture Society, we are convinced that this represents an excellent opportunity to develop other regions and species and we must focus on strategies to achieve these goals. My last column broached this subject, so we already discussed public policy, governance, investment needs, technology development and innovation. One major issue is that to increase production by more than 40 million tons we also need to incorporate qualified personnel in the value chain. Simple math would put the number of new human resources incorporating into the sector in the next 25 years at around 7 million. Are these people available already to work on demand? The simple answer is no. We can poach a little bit here and there (in finance, logistics, data analysis, transportation, marketing, etc.), but aquaculture is a special beast that requires specific profiles for successful commercial production. Where are these people going to come from? Obviously, you can transfer some managers from successful operations to new ones, but there is a limit. So, most of the new human resources will come from the different regions where aquaculture develops next. This means Latin America, Africa, some regions in Asia and some development is also going to come from developed countries in Europe and America. What is the challenge? It takes time to train personnel, develop new scientists (new species and new regions represents different challenges, requiring specific knowledge to be developed) and managers to structure and grow new businesses. In other words, if, for example, Mexico were to act on its Master Plan for Aquaculture Development (a proposal I coordinated several years ago) and had the 6 billion dollars required to grow from 250,000 tons today to 1 million tons, you would not be able to do it immediately. The main challenge would be to (develop and) implement technologies at the commercial level, but also, who would be the industry recipient of those technologies? A scientist requires 2-3 years for a master’s degree and 4 for a PhD, then 5 years to consolidate a specialty lab at a university or Science Institute (provided there are resources available), before being able to establish a research program focused on specific needs for a new aquaculture species and/or region. A basic group for an aquaculture (CONTINUED ON PAGE 72)

WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • MARCH 2024 3 Editor’s Note I’ve realized over the years that it is increasingly difficult to keep up with advances in the field of aquaculture. But from time to time I am faced with the fact that technical advances are also taking place in disciplines that, at first glance, seem unrelated to the science (and art) of raising aquatic animals. It’s easy to miss important developments if you’re always focused on one thing. Many “modern” forms of aquaculture are energy intensive, and as pressure increases regarding the efficient use of resources, they will be even more so. When evaluating potential aquaculture development projects, one of the first things I consider is the availability of reliable electric service. And as I’ve learned first-hand in isolated settings in several developing nations, if the electrical grid is unreliable then pumps and blowers are often reduced to simple, heavy objects – and those objects are quite easy to trip over when the lights go out. Electrification continues to be a slow process in many countries with limited resources. It is difficult to recoup the high investment costs associated with electrifying remote areas, or even to justify it when things like clean drinking water are higher priorities. Recently, however, a number of distributed energy resources are becoming available. Options based on renewable/sustainable power generation in remote locations, such as micro- or mini-grids, are especially suited for many aquaculture facilities. While costs are still high in some configurations, continuous advances in battery storage, inverters, transformers, controls and software will make this approach more accessible in the coming years. Photovoltaic energy is generally the first component in microgrid development. Several years ago, Mahadi et al. (2018) presented a design for a solar microgrid to power fish hatchery facilities and nearby households in Bangladesh. Pilot sites were off-grid, with one actually located on an island. The design process took into account factors such as electricity demand for the hatcheries, electricity demand for the surrounding communities, willingness to invest, equipment costs and economic measures such as Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Return on Investment (ROI). The system provided for expanded hatchery capacity and increased demand for fingerlings from neighboring small-scale producers. In 2023, Imani et al. described a sustainable energy model suitable for a small shrimp farm in western Taiwan. The system utilized the area above the production ponds for electricity generation, with a monthly capacity of 32 MWh, more than sufficient for the power demands required for shrimp production. Similarly, Song et al. (2024) described the use of a photovoltaic plant deployed over an existing aquaculture pond in southeast China. Average water temperature was reduced by 1.5 C and dissolved oxygen concentrations were increased by 8 – 24%. Tien et al. (2023) went several steps beyond contemporary approaches to clean energy in aquaculture. Motivated by a concern for environmentally unsustainable and inefficient aeration practices in Vietnamese shrimp farms, they developed a system using renewable energy to power an electolyzer. The resulting outputs were pure oxygen for use in culture operations, as well as hydrogen for commercial use or back-up power generation. My point is, it’s easy to miss the technological advances going on in other fields and how they can be applied to our own goals. If you’re considering a land-based aquaculture operation in the middle of nowhere, there may be more options for energy access than you would expect. And likewise, if you’re considering an offshore site, also in the middle of nowhere, wave energy converters may be just what you need. But that’s a story for another issue. — C. Greg Lutz, Editor-in-Chief Surfing the Channels

4 MARCH 2024 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG Aquaculture 2025 March 6-10, 2025 New Orleans Marriott New Orleans, Louisiana ASSOCIATE SPONSORS Aquaculture Engineering Society • Aquaculture Association of Canada Catfish Farmers of America • Global Seafood Alliance International Association of Aquaculture • Economics and Management Latin America & Caribbean Chapter WA • US Trout Farmers Association Zebrafish Husbandry Association CO-SPONSORS HOSTED BY For More Information: Event Information: Conference & Registration: Tradeshow: I tio r T n o y AQ25 ad LTR CMYK.pdf 1 3/11/24 14:02

WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • MARCH 2024 5 Sinking to floating. Sub-millimeter to pellet. When you select an Extrusion Processing System from Extru-Tech, you have a complete Universe with the ability to maintain size yields over 95%. As your business evolves, you have the flexibility to change your finished product without the need for significant capital expenditures. In an industry where aquafeed can represent 50% of your operation cost, don’t gamble. Contact Extru-Tech and optimize your flexibility and profitability. OUR UNIVERSE EXTRU-TECH AQUAFEED UNIVERSE Sub 1 Millimeter Pellet Master Your Aquafeed Universe P.O. Box 8 100 Airport Road Sabetha, KS 66534, USA Phone: 785-284-2153 Fax: 785-284-3143 ET-338F.indd 1 1/28/21 8:46 AM you (including those that we missed this year) at the Triennial Aquaculture conference in New Orleans, LA in March 2025. Mark your calendars! I’d also like to share some highlights from board activities over this quarter. At Aquaculture America 2024, we awarded an impressive 8 professional awards, 1 Early-Career, 3 Distinguished Service, 3 Lifetime Achievement, and 1 Douglas Drennan II Industry Award. We issued 9 student travel and abstract awards as well as additional oral and presentation awards at the conference. We offered a Continuing Education Workshop on “R” Syntax and Applications and you can expect 1-2 workshops covering various topics at the next meeting. For the second year in a row, the Diversity and Inclusion Committee hosted 33 local high school students for a half-day event at the conference. They learned about the many career paths in aquaculture but were most impressed by the trade show and all the “cool swag” they got. The jumbo shrimp and aqua pins were such a hit they insisted on going back for seconds before lunch. Our Promotion and Membership Outreach committee completed U.S. Aquaculture Society Hello all! For those of you that don’t know me, my name is Abigail Bockus and I’m beginning my term as USAS President. I’m thrilled to share the many exciting initiatives happening within the USAS chapter and welcome ideas and feedback on ways to strengthen our society over the upcoming year. As Anita Kelly, Immediate Past President, mentioned in her previous column we had a phenomenal slate of candidates on this year’s election ballot. I’ll begin by thanking our four outgoing board members for their time and dedication over the previous year and extending a warm welcome to our three incoming board members (as well as Mick Walsh who transitions from her role as Board Member to President Elect). Our current board represents a diverse range of industries and specializations and will no doubt guide this year’s initiatives in new and fruitful directions. We had a great turnout at Aquaculture America 2024 in San Antonio, TX with over 2,100 attendees. Of those, we had 210 students attend and present. Big thank you to our student body for sharing your work and bringing so much enthusiasm and energy to the conference. I enjoyed seeing new and old friends alike and hope to see many of CHAPTER REPORTS (CONTINUED ON PAGE 6)

6 MARCH 2024 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG CHAPTER REPORTS Asian Pacific Chapter Asian aquaculture continues to play an important role in world production despite emerging diseases and uncertain markets. The marine shrimp sector, which contributes significantly to the aquaculture trade in many Asian countries, faces many of these issues, particularly from diseases in Penaeus vannamei, such as the Translucent post-larvae disease (TPD) caused by different strains of Vibrio, as well as the Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV) in Indonesia. The VTPD reported first in 2020 in China, is apparently spreading fast across several coastal shrimp farms there, and most recently reported from Vietnam, causing postlarval mortality shortly after stocking in ponds. The new year also posed greater market challenges for the global shrimp business, mainly due to overproduction and supply from some of the largest producers. Freshwater and marine fish, as well as the aquafeed sector, have been facing major problems affecting sustainable production, supply chain disruptions impacting trade and input supplies, and the implications of climate change. The global aquaculture industry will converge in Surabaya to discuss these issues and others at the next Asian Pacific Aquaculture (APA) 2024, held from 2 - 5 July, 2024. We are collaborating with our Indonesian colleagues to organize another mammoth conference following APA 2016 at the same venue that brought over 6000 participants. Based on this track record, we expect APA2024 at the Grand City Hall Convention Centre Surabaya to be the next big thing in Asian aquaculture. We are already seeing promising industry interest and widespread attention to this event. To encourage greater participation, the deadline for abstract submission has been extended to 31 March. I propose that all WAS-APC members and colleagues schedule their presentations and organize special sessions in Surabaya to help us set a new record among WAS conferences. WAS has recently decided to provide free student memberships and special discounted registration fees for students to attend conferences. We’ve also offered multiple travel awards for students and women’s travel awards to help more participants from Asian countries attend APA 2024. Details on these announcements can be found on the WAS-APA website at We actively seek industry support for these prizes through nominal contributions. If you would like to offer a travel award to a student or another participant attending APA 2024, please email the WAS-APC secretariat at At the Aquaculture America 2024 conference conducted by the US Chapter in San Antonio, Texas, I had the opportunity to connect with representatives from the WAS African Chapter. We agreed to explore possibilities for both the Asian and African chapters to collaborate. I’ve invited Dr. Foluke Areola, President of the WAS African Chapter, to attend the upcoming APC Board meeting in early April. We expect that this will be a new beginning in our pursuit of various partnership options. This would also allow Africa’s rapidly growing aquaculture industry to draw on successful Asian examples while adapting them to the increasing needs of African aquaculture. We are now in the process of electing new office bearers to lead the Asian-Pacific Chapter over the next term. The ballot has been completed and is being announced. I request all WAS-APC members vote for the upcoming positions of President-elect, two Directors, and Treasurer. The new Board is set to assume office during the APA 2024 meeting in Surabaya. Asian aquaculture is critical to the food and nutritional security of a rapidly expanding Asian population and meeting the demands for premium seafood markets worldwide. We seek to emphasize the strength of the Asian industry, which is positioned to become a more resilient sector across the region, when we unveil the final program of APA 2024 at the next Steering Committee meeting on 30 April in Surabaya. Together, we will make this another outstanding Asian-Pacific conference. See you all soon in Surabaya. Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Pathum Thani, Bangkok, Thailand 12120 Email: — Krishna Salin, President USAS, continued from page 5 their membership survey. Thank you to all that participated! I know they received a high percent of member participation. These surveys are your chance to tell the board what you like and what you’d like to see done differently. We appreciate the feedback and you can expect a summary of results soon via various WAS/USAS communication channels. Our Webinars committee offered 2 free webinars already this year covering Aquaculture Literacy Through Social Media and Nitrification in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems. Check them out here We are also excited to announce that we will begin a “USAS Chapter” column that will appear in each issue of WAS magazine starting next quarter. This column will highlight aquaculture stories across the US. If you have a good idea for a story let us know! Lastly, we’re making big strides on the communications front and you can expect a lot of activity and updates on our webpage https://, Instagram @usaquasoc, Facebook “US Aquaculture Society” and other social media channels. Stay tuned all year and get involved. Together, let’s see what we can do. — Abigail Bockus, President


8 MARCH 2024 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG AFRAQ 2024 Chapter Founding Gold Sponsor WAS Premier Sponsors Conference Sponsors “Blue Farming: New Horizons for Economic Growth” 3rd Annual International Conference & Exposition of the African Chapter of the World Aquaculture Society November 19-22 Hammamet, TUNISIA Organized By MINISTÈRE DE L’AGRICULTURE, DES RESSOURCES HYDRAULIQUES ET DE LA PÊCHE, TUNISIE Hosted By Conference Management Exhibits & Sponsors Mario Stael WAS - African Chapter Blessing Mapfumo AFRAQ24 letter ad.indd 1 2/24/24 11:45

WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • MARCH 2024 9 CHAPTER REPORTS Aquaculture Africa 2023 Conference lives up to its billing, as the African Chapter of the World Aquaculture Society celebrates five years of progress The 2nd Aquaculture Africa Conference (AFRAQ23) took place on 13-16 November 2023 at the majestic Mulungushi International Convention Centre in Lusaka, Zambia. Themed “Resilient value chains in the blue economy” AFRAQ23 attracted nearly 1200 attendees from industry, academia, government, and development partners. Delegates hailed from 73 countries around the world, but mostly African nations. The event took place as WAS-AC was celebrating five years of existence; the Chapter was formally established in November 2018. The Conference was graced by the Minister of Fisheries and Livestock, Honourable Makozo Chikote and other senior state dignitaries from Zambia and other African countries. High-level guests from WAS, FAO, WorldFish, the Common Market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA), Southern Africa Development Cooperation (SADC), and the African Union (AU) also featured at the Opening Ceremony of AFRAQ23. Other highlights during the Opening Ceremony included the inaugural WAS-AC honors and awards ceremony, which saw Dr. Sherif Sadek (Egypt) being recognised for his role in serving as first Chapter President (2018-2022), as well as Chairperson of the inaugural Aquaculture Africa 2021 (AFRAQ21) Conference, held in Egypt in 2022. Dr. Sadek is a renowned aquaculture expert, supplier and shrimp production operator from Egypt. Other special honourees during the occasion included the African Union Development Agency New Partnership for Africa’s Development (AUDA-NEPAD) for its role in hosting the Secretariat of WAS-AC, as well as the South African government through the Department of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries (DFFE) for its role in supporting the establishment of WAS-AC since 2017. Aller Aqua, the Chapter’s founding Gold Sponsor and Gold Sponsor to AFRAQs 21 and 23 was also specially recognised for its industrious role in developing aquaculture in Africa. The government of Zambia received a special appreciation award for its contributions in hosting AFRAQ23. The conference scientific and technical programme was well packed with multi-sessions that resonated to the conference theme of “sustainability,” balancing global and African perspectives – thanks to the efforts as led by renowned Programme Chairs Professor Peter Britz (Rhodes University, South Africa) and Professor Cyprian Katongo (University of Zambia – which was also the hosting institution). The programme featured 44 sessions, 225 abstracts and 49 posters. What was most unique at AFRAQ23 was the presence of a number of developmental organisations who hosted a number of special side-sessions and workshops covering some various key thematic areas. These included AUDA-NEPAD, FAO, the World Bank, WorldFish, the Aquaculture Network for Africa (ANAF), the American Soybean Association’s World Initiative for Soy in Human Health Program (WISHH), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Aquaculture Without Frontiers (AwF), the World Aquatic Veterinary Medical Association (WAVMA) and others. The presence of major industry players such African Chapter CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT: Minister of Fisheries and Livestock, Zambia (Hon. Makozo Chikote) graced the Opening of AFRAQ23. • The event was attended by nearly 1200 participants at the majestic Mulungushi International Convention Centre, Lusaka. • Dr Sherif Sadek (Egypt) receiving a token of appreciation from Hon. Makozo Chikote during the Honors and Awards ceremony. • A Zambian cultural group entertaining guests at AFRAQ23. • AFRAQ23’s exhibition featured 55 booths from 22 countries.• Her Excellency Ms. Chileshe Mpundu Kapwepwe (Secretary General – COMESA), giving an opening speech. (CONTINUED ON PAGE 10)

10 MARCH 2024 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG LACQUA 24 “Aquaculture in Latin America: innovation and sustainability for a global aquaculture,” is approaching and we are very enthusiastic about the kind of event that is taking shape. Our two Board Directors Dr. Adriana Muñoz in the academics field, and Dr. Paola Barato also in the academics but mainly in the industry sector, and our Secretariat Carolina Amezquita have finished developing a wonderful program. Combined events will be the XI Colombian Congress of Aquaculture, and the meeting of the Latin American Association of Native Fish Culture. Based in South America, we have some of the more important commercial cultures of native fish in the continent. And with a focus on sustainability, having this event combined with LACQUA gives the opportunity to underline the role of native species for commercial aquaculture and to recognize the socioeconomic impacts of this sector. A new, energetic part of this team is our Board’s Student Representative, Angelica Barrera. She is having a full agenda coordinating students among different Universities, many of them volunteering as helpers for the Conference. Maria Angelica, together with Dra. Laura Silva Ledezma, our Board Secretary, have taken on the task of reviving our social media presence. We invite you to visit our Facebook and Instagram sites and see not only current LACC news, but also wonderful material that both are producing. Congratulations ladies! Our Chapter will renew three Board positions this year: President-elect, treasurer and one director. We have assembled such a wonderful team for the 2 years of my Presidency, and I can only be thankful to Ricardo Vieira, Luis Agraz and Paola Barato for their work. In LACQUA 24, I step down as President and become Past-President, replacing our lovely Dra. Maria Celia Portella. Maria Celia has already been WAS President, and she brought to the Chapter her experience and advice, always of high value. The deadline for nominations for the next board has passed and we are so pleased to have excellent candidates. Mainly, we will maintain country diversity, which has been my main goal since I took over as President. We must include representatives from as many countries in our region as possible, since we have so many experts and world leaders. Actually, at this moment our Board has a majority of women (5 including our Student Representative, to 3 men), and we will reinforce the inclusion of minorities going forward. Our ballot for this year, to be voted on by our membership, looks as follows: • President-elect: Dr. Marcelo Shei (Brasil), Dra. Paola Barato (Colombia) • Treasurer: Dr. Jesaias Costa (Brasil) • Director: Dr. Juli-Anne Russo (Jamaica), Dr. Marisol Morales-Covarrubias (Mexico) Please wait for our news, and vote for your candidates. Finally, we have discussed in our Chapter the necessity for incorporating, in a better way, the Youth. Which is not a reference to our Student Representative, but to the young professionals in Latin America and the Caribbean that are not really represented in our Chapter. This means working in another level with the industry, and we are already planning a few actions. We hope to see all of you in Medellín, Colombia, September 2427 for LACQUA 2024!!!! — Francisco Javier Martinez Cordero, President Latin American and Caribbean Chapter CHAPTER REPORTS as Aller Aqua, Yalelo, Lake Harvest Aquaculture, Aquaspark, Grand Group for Fish Feed, Chicoa Fish Farm Mozambique and others, as well as several SMEs in aquaculture from Zambia and Africa-wide was noteworthy. As in all WAS global events, the technical and scientific programme was complemented by a major international trade show which featured 55 booths from 22 countries, including a Zambia aquaculture pavilion which showcased the country’s aquaculture industry and a number of projects. An aquaculture tour concluded the AFRAQ23 programme with delegates having the opportunity to visit some active aquaculture sites in Siavonga/Lake Kariba and around Lusaka. The WAS-AC Executive Board of Directors also had the opportunity to convene its Annual Board Meeting, where decisions on the way forward for the Chapter were made. This also saw Ms. Foluke Areola from Nigeria inaugurated as the new Chapter President for the 2023-2025 term, taking over from Dr. John Africa, continued from page 9 Walakira (Uganda). WAS-AC also physically launched its Africa Student Forum following recent WAS student policy and strategy changes, and launched a platform for Portuguese speaking countries (PALOP). No doubt, there was something for everyone at AFRAQ23 as the event catered to the broad range of interests in aquaculture — providing a learning, information-sharing and networking opportunity for entrepreneurs, businesses, scientists, technical specialists, educators, students, policy-makers and public officials. The conference was officially hosted by the Government of Zambia through the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock. Aller Aqua was once again the Gold sponsor, and WISHH, GIZ and WorldFish were silver sponsors. The WASAC is thankful to all attendees, various session sponsors, exhibitors, collaborators, media partners and everyone who contributed to make the event a success. More information is available on the AFRAQ23 website and at — Foluke Omotayo Areola, President


12 MARCH 2024 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG CHAPTER REPORTS Gim (Laver) Becomes First Seafood Product to Reach KRW 1 Trillion ($7.7 Billion) in Exports On December 21, the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF) announced that exports of South Korea’s flagship seafood product, Gim (laver) reached KRW 1 trillion won ($7.7 billion), exported to 124 countries around the world, from dried to seasoned to snack laver. This is the best performance for a single item in the history of seafood exports. While exports have been struggling due to the global economic slowdown, the record-breaking performance of seaweed exports is helping to revitalize a rebound. Gim producers, processors, and exporters have worked hard to innovate technologies and develop new products, opening up not only traditional export markets such as the United States, China, and Japan, but also new markets such as the Middle East and South America. Gim exports have grown at an average annual rate of 8 percent over the past decade, and the number of export destinations has nearly doubled from 64 countries in 2010. The MOF has been supporting the industry to acquire international certifications, provide export vouchers, and participate in overseas trade consultations. In addition, to stably produce competitive seaweed products, the ministry designated three ‘Gim Industry Promotion Zones’, areas created to promote seaweed production, aquaculture, processing, manufacturing, distribution, export, and sales. “We will continue to actively promote brand marketing and new product development so that Korean Gim can firmly hold the top spot in the overseas laver market,” said Cho Seung-Hwan (Minister, MOF). Promoting the Most Popular Korean Farmed Seafood – Gim, Oysters, Abalone, and Flounder The Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF) established a plan to foster key varieties of farmed marine products in January 2024. The MOF (Minister Kang Do-Hyung) focuses on increasing the consumption and export of domestic representative farmed marine products such as Gim (laver), oysters, abalone, and flounder. The MOF established and announced the “Full cycle development plan for key aquaculture products” that supports the entire cycle from production to distribution and export. The MOF selected Gim (laver), oysters, abalone, and flounder as four core products with a production and consumption base to respond quickly to changes in the external environment surrounding farmed marine products. It classified them by item to ensure their competitiveness in the global market. The MOF plans to provide comprehensive support by preparing specific development plans and explaining this promotion plan’s purpose and main contents to businesses and organizations in the four core items, discovering necessary support in the field, and organizing it as a new project this year. In the case of oysters, the proportion of individual oysters (sold by the shell) preferred by American and European consumers will be increased to 30% by 2030 (currently 1%) to expand premium oyster exports. The scope of domestic oysters will be expanded by simultaneously exporting price-competitive domestic peeled oysters and premium individual oysters. In addition, the MOF plans to expand the oyster consumer base by developing various processed products such as snacks and soups, using oysters and oyster products for school meals, and reducing negative perceptions about oysters’ unique flavor and texture. The MOF will expand the scope of the abalone market by creating various processing recipes using abalone and developing 20 promising processed abalone products by 2030. In addition, the MOF will improve the abalone export structure, which was concentrated in Japan (78% as of 2022), by exporting processed abalone products as healthy food to Western countries that are not familiar with abalone and exporting them from clean fishing grounds to East Asia, such as China and Vietnam, which prefer live abalone. Currently, most flounder is consumed as live fish, so there is a need to revitalize processing to expand consumption. Accordingly, the MOF provides support in processing flounder into everyday foods such as steak and salad so that it can become a highly versatile product like salmon. The stability in quantity and price must be preempted to increase production efficiency by distributing excellent seeds and high-efficiency equipment, and forming a processing market. The Promise of Collaboration to Expand the Market for Environmentally Friendly and Responsible Aquaculture by PKNU, ASC, KFARTA, and Aquapro Co. Pukyong National University (PKNU), Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC), Korea Future Aquaculture Technology Research Association (KFATRA), and Aquapro Co., Ltd. participated in a momentous event on December 27, 2023, by signing an agreement that marks a significant step towards promoting sustainable aquaculture technology in Korea. An agreement ceremony was held, and the agreement was prepared to spread sustainable aquaculture technology for the future of the domestic aquaculture industry, with the potential to improve the quality and expand the market of responsible aquaculture products for the environment and society, and promote certification by the ASC Aquaculture Management Council. The Korea Future Aquaculture Technology Research Association (KFATRA), a technology network, and Aquapro Co., the first company in Korea to successfully farm flounder using a circular filtration method, are expanding their cooperation. Specific areas of cooperation include producer education and promotion, market access and expansion for ASC-certified aquaculture products, promoting the need for sustainable seafood to consumers, disseminating consumer culture and cooperation in joint promotions, expanding eco-friendly feeds and smart aquaculture technology, and information sharing. Ceremony Held for 60 years of Korean Shrimp Farming The Korea Shrimp Farming Association held a monument unveiling ceremony at the entrance of Muchangpo Chicken Crest Island in Doksan-ri, Ungcheon-up, Boryeong-gun, Chungnam, to Korean Chapter

WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • MARCH 2024 13 CHAPTER REPORTS commemorate 60 years of Korean shrimp farming, on February 15, 2024. The Association announced that it erected a monument in commemoration of the start of prawn aquaculture in Korea in 1963 at Sinheung Fisheries, located in Sohwang-ri, Ungcheon-myeon, Chungcheongnam-do, by selecting a location that is closest to the birthplace of shrimp farming and frequently visited by tourists. More than 20 people attended the event, including executives of the Korea Shrimp Farming Association, Boryeong City Congressman Baek Sung-hyun and Cho Jang-hyun, Chungnam Provincial Fisheries Resources Research Institute Director Jang Min-gyu, and Muchangpo Tourism Association Chairman Kim Ji-ho. Lee Ki-bong, Chairman of the Korean Shrimp Farming Association, said in his greeting, “I hope that the monument will serve as an opportunity to publicize the birthplace of Korean shrimp farming and promote the importance of shrimp farming to many people.” Kim Young-soo, head of the Boryeong City Fisheries Department, said, “I think it is meaningful to erect a monument in the place where shrimp farming began in our country,” and added, “I hope that shrimp consumption will become more active in the future and help increase the income of shrimp farming companies.” The monument to 60 years of shrimp farming is the third aquaculture monument in Korea, following the oyster farming tasting site and the foundation stone of trout farming. Presenting a Blueprint for the High Value-Added Future Aquaculture Industry On December 28, the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF, Minister Cho Seung-Hwan) established and announced the “Basic Plan for Aquaculture Industry Development (2024~2028)” to strengthen the competitiveness of the aquaculture industry and ensure sustainable development. Aquaculture is considered a core industry that can provide a stable supply in response to the depletion of marine resources and the increasing demand for high-protein marine products. Domestically, the proportion of farmed marine products supplied reaches 63%, and globally, the production value of the aquaculture industry is approximately KRW 300 billion. Accordingly, to increase the competitiveness of the aquaculture industry so that it can leap forward as a high-value-added future industry and to establish a stable fishery product supply system, the MOF has established a mid- to long-term policy direction for five years from 2024 to 2028 through the Aquaculture Industry Development Act. This plan is meaningful because it is the first mid- to long-term policy direction established since the Aquaculture Industry Development Act was separated from the Fisheries Act as an independent law in 2019. This basic plan aims to transform the aquaculture industry into a smart and automated one, expand its production, and provide safe marine products that the public can rest assured of. It consists of four promotion strategies, creation of high added value through production, processing, and exports, creation of a foundation for a sustainable aquaculture industry, and 16 detailed implementation tasks. New MOF Minister Kang Do-hyung President Yoon Suk-yeol made a significant decision on Dec. 29, 2023, appointing Kang Do-hyung, the director of the prestigious Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST), as the new Minister of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF). The official letters of appointment were presented at the esteemed Presidential Office Building in Yongsan, Seoul, on Jan. 3, 2024. Minister Kang, a native of Seogwipo, Jeju Island, was born in 1970. He has an impressive academic and professional background, having served as the 11th director of KIOST and a professor at the University of Science and Technology (UST) since 2009. His research areas, marine biology and microalgae, have led to significant technological advancements and have been instrumental in the growth of related industries. Minister Kang’s dedication to his field is evident in his various roles and responsibilities. He has served as the general affairs director of the Korean Society of Biotechnology, a member of the Jeju Island Regional Innovation Council, and an advisor to the Busan Port Development Council. These positions have allowed him to contribute significantly to advancing his field and the development of his country. — Ik Kyo Chung, President World Aquaculture Society Student Association The World Aquaculture Society Student Association is composed of students and senior WAS members dedicated to providing students with beneficial opportunities during conferences and throughout the year. During WAS chapter and annual meetings, the Student Activities Committee organizes special workshops and seminars, provides complimentary roommate services, hosts student socials, and provides helpful information for all students. Since its beginning, the membership in WAS has grown to more than 3,000 members in about 100 countries representing the global aquaculture community. Learn more here.

14 MARCH 2024 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG • Engle, C. R., van Senten, J., Tuckett, Q. M., & Hill, J. E. (2023). Potential economic impact on U.S. aquaculture of injurious species listing of major aquaculture species. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 55(1), 89–109. Available at: https:// In the United States, the Lacey Act is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to regulate interstate movement and importation of injurious wildlife species, including aquatic organisms. This study evaluated the potential unintended economic impact of expanding the Lacey Act to include a number of proposed species, some of which are currently produced in aquaculture facilities. If such species are added to the Lacey Act and listed as injurious wildlife, a prohibition on interstate transport could be implemented. Potential affected species include blue catfish, tilapia, red swamp crawfish, grass carp, koi, guppy, and goldfish. Given the current values linked to the production and trade of these species, it was found that a total economic impact of such regulation may be as high as $452 million (USD) annually. This would include the loss of 4819 jobs and $35 million in tax revenue. Such expansion of regulations may impact up to 80% of U.S. states where such aquaculture products are produced or transported. Up to 21% of the aquaculture farms in the U.S. may be impacted by such a listing of these aquaculture species, which would have a negative impact on this industry. It will be important to ensure continued engagement between key public agencies, professional societies such as the American Fisheries Society, and aquaculture farmers to ensure economic impacts are minimized when addressing regional risks of moving live aquatic animals. • Thorarinsson, R., Negaard, P., Baeverfjord, G., Peña, P., & Skjerve, E. (2023). The effect of vaccine-associated cross-stitch vertebrae pathology on growth of farmed Atlantic salmon. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, xxxxxxx. Available at: This study evaluates the occurrence of a recently described condition referred to as cross-stitch pathology affecting the vertebrae of Atlantic salmon. The experiment described in the the Journal of the World Aquaculture Society Editor’s Choice Awards 55(1) paper characterizes the incidence and severity of this condition by following groups of fish reared under commercial conditions at two cage sites in southern Norway. Initially, two groups of fish received commercially approved vaccines consisting of either a DNA vaccine against pancreatic disease (PD) that included an oil-adjuvanted hexavalent vaccine (group A) or an oil-adjuvanted heptavalent PD vaccine (group B) containing an inactivated PD component. Fish were vaccinated and reared in tanks until smoltification and then transported to the different sea cage sites. The findings demonstrated that fish from group B had a significantly higher prevalence and severity of the cross-stitch pathology than fish in group A. This indicated that administration of the PD DNA vaccine plus the hexavalent vaccine (without an inactivated PD component) resulted in lower occurrence of this pathology than fish given a vaccine that included an inactivated PD component. Another interesting finding was that the cage site where fish were reared had a significant effect on severity and prevalence of this cross-stitch pathology. When fish had moderate to severe cross-stitch pathology (> a score of 3) there as a significant reduction in growth. There was an absence of any notable PD prior prior sampling, and the authors noted that the condition appeared to progress over time. Although vaccine components may affect the occurrence of this condition, it was suggested that other unknown factors influence the severity of cross-stitch pathology. The impact of this condition on growth and welfare is concerning and represents potential economic loss. Further research is clearly needed to better understand the mechanisms linked to this pathology and how producers can prevent it while still providing maximum protection against PD through vaccination. • Yang, P., Zheng, Y., Zou, X., Sun, Y., & Liu, Y. (2023). Comparative transcriptomic analysis of gene expression profiles in the liver and spleen of American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) in response to Citrobacter freundii infection. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 353-372. Available at: The American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) has a high From Yang et al. (2023).

WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • MARCH 2024 15 The Journal of the World Aquaculture Society (JWAS) JWAS is a scientific journal devoted to the advancement of technological innovations and solutions to major issues facing the growth of global aquaculture. For over four decades, JWAS has represented the part of the World Aquaculture Society’s overall mission. JWAS seeks manuscripts related to all aspects of ecologically, socially and economically sustainable production of all aquatic species worldwide. Learn more here. market value for human consumption and this amphibian species is now commercially cultured in many parts of the world. In China, amphibian aquaculture of the American bullfrog reached 500,000 tons in 2019. As with many cultured species, stress events associated with high-density culture increase the bullfrog’s susceptibility to aquatic pathogens, which can result in disease outbreaks. Several bacterial pathogens can cause a condition known as red-leg syndrome (RLS), and one of these pathogens (Citrobacter freundii) is known to cause high mortality in bullfrogs. Disease control is challenging and there is limited understanding of how immune responses or metabolic mechanisms change in bullfrogs in response to this or other infections. This study assessed gene expression profiles of bullfrogs after C. freundii infection to provide a baseline understanding of how various genes are regulated. RNA sequencing technology was utilized to determine the transcriptomic profile and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the liver and spleen of bullfrogs post-experimental infection with C. freundii. Following de novo assembly, 77,556 L. catesbeianus transcripts were generated and 49,421 of these genes were annotated. There were 1487 DEGs identified from analysis of liver tissue and 788 of these were upregulated and 709 were downregulated in response to infection. In spleen tissue, they found a total of 799 DEGs, and 311 of those genes were upregulated and 488 downregulated. Many of the DEGs were associated with immune response and metabolic pathways. It was speculated that bullfrogs may regulate immune-related and metabolism-related gene expression via some type of positive and negative feedback following infection, but the mechanism associated with this requires further study. This work is the first to present a large transcriptomic profile of the bullfrog immune response post-C. Freundii infection and the findings provide new insight into molecular mechanisms associated with disease defenses of the American bullfrog. — Ken Cain, Executive Editor, JWAS U.S. AQUACULTURE SOCIETY Sponsored Publications Request for Proposals The USAS is seeking proposals for publications, including books, conference proceedings, fact sheets, pictorials, hatchery or production manuals, data compilations, and other materials that are important to U.S. aquaculture development and that will be of benefit to USAS members. Individuals wishing to have a project considered for funding by the USAS should prepare a proposal — guidelines are available on the website • CONDITIONS FOR PUBLICATION: The USAS Board of Directors will rate proposals and select projects for publication. The successful applicant will serve as co-author; however, depending on contribution to the publication, the applicant may not necessarily serve as chief or sole author. The USAS will cover general publication and distribution costs for one or more projects up to $5,000 each year. However, special consideration will be given to worthwhile projects that exceed this limit. No compensation will be provided to the authors for their time spent in writing the publication. The publication will be property of the USAS and will be sold through the WAS bookstore. • CONTACT: John Bowzer, Ph.D. • EMAIL: John.Bowzer@ADM.COM • PHONE: 217-451-3963 • MOBILE: 985-377-4480