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Effects of Pyrene, 2-Methylnaphthalene, and Phenanthrene on Early Life Stages of three aquaculture fishes Pagrus major, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Paralichthys olivaceus in Korea

Seong-Dae Moon*, Chan-Gyung Sung, Chang-Hoon Lee, and Jong-Hyeon Lee
 
NeoEnBiz Co., Institute of Environmental Safety and Protection,
DeawooTechnoPark, 216, Doyak-ro
Bucheon, Kyeonggido, Republic of Korea, 420-806
neosdm@gmail.com

Marine oil spill accidents give a variety of adverse influences on aquaculture organisms for a long time. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), one of the major crude oil constituents, have been reported to induce developmental inhibition, morphological deformity, histopathological effects and genetic damage on fishes.

In this study, we evaluated the impact of the PAHs on early life stages of 3 aquaculture fishes (red sea-bream, Pagrus major, rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, and olive flounder,  Paralichthys olivaceus) using pyrene, 2-methylnaphthalene, and phenanthrene. Embryonic development and larval morphology were investigated for each species.

The median effect concentration (EC50) was not estimated for pyrene, and phenanthrene for all test species. The EC50s for 2-methylnaphthalene of Pagrus major, Oplegnathus fasciatus, and Paralichthys olivaceus were 12.8, 10.9, and 18.0 µmol/L, respectively. The no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for pyrene of Pagrus major, Oplegnathus fasciatus and Paralichthys olivaceus were 99, 99, 0.013 µmol/L, respectively. The NOECs for 2-methylnaphthalene of Pagrus major, Oplegnathus fasciatus and Paralichthys olivaceus were 5.5, 5.5, and 3.5 µmol/L, respectively. The NOECs for phenanthrene of Pagrus major, Oplegnathus fasciatus, and Paralichthys olivaceus were 7.0, 224, 0.96 µmol/L, respectively.

There was no morphological deformity in the hatched larvae of Pagrus major exposed three PAHs. The spinal curvature and fin deformity were observed in Oplegnathus fasciatus at 11 µmol/L of 2-metylnaphthalene. Pericardial edema, ocular development inhibition, spinal curvature and fin deformity were observed in Paralichthys olivaceus exposed to 0.013 µmol/L of pyrene, 3.5 µmol/L of 2-metylnaphthalene, and 1.0 µmol/L of phenanthrene. It was considered that Paralichthys olivaceus to be more sensitive than Pagrus major and Oplegnathus fasciatus to PAHs. Some embryo of Paralichthys olivaceus successfully hatched in lower concentrations, while morphological deformity was observed in these concentrations. PAHs seem to have large effects on the early life stages of aquaculture fishes.

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