World Aquaculture - June 2023


WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • JUNE 2023 1 WORLD AQUACULTURE MAGAZINE WORLD AQUACULTURE magazine is published by the World Aquaculture Society. The home office address is: World Aquaculture Society, PO Box 397, Sorrento LA 70778-0397 USA. P and F: +1-225-347-5408; Email: World Aquaculture Society Home Page: WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY OFFICERS, 2023-24 Humberto Villarreal, President Jennifer Cobcroft Blair, Immediate Past President David Cline, President-Elect Reginald Blaylock, Treasurer Rumaitha Al Busaidi, Secretary DIRECTORS Victoria Tarus Hillary Egna Angela Caporelli Etienne Hinrichsen Shivaun Leonard Yahira Piedrahita Marina M. Rubio Benito, Student Director CHAPTER REPRESENTATIVES John Walakira, African Salin Krishna, Asian Pacific Ik Kyo Chung, Korean Francisco Javier Martínez Cordero, Latin America and Caribbean Anita Kelly, USAS HOME OFFICE STAFF Judy Edwards Andrasko, Director, Killian A. Haydel, Assistant Director, WORLD AQUACULTURE EDITORIAL STAFF John Hargreaves, Editor-in-Chief Mary Nickum, Editor Linda Noble, Layout Editor WAS CONFERENCES AND SALES John Cooksey, Executive Director of Conferences and Sales World Aquaculture Conference Management P.O. Box 2302, Valley Center, CA 92082 P: +1-760-751-5005; F: +1-760-751-5003 Email: MANUSCRIPTS AND CORRESPONDENCE Submit manuscripts as Microsoft Word files to Mary Nickum, Editor, World Aquaculture magazine. Email: Letters to the Editor or other comments should be sent to the Editor-in-Chief, John Hargreaves at WORLD AQUACULTURE (ISSN 1041-5602), is published quarterly by the World Aquaculture Society, 6203 Jonathan Alaric Avenue, Gonzales, LA 70737 USA. Library subscription price $50 annually for United States addresses and $65 annually for addresses outside the United States. Individual subscriptions are a benefit of membership in the World Aquaculture Society. Annual membership dues: Students, $45; Individuals, $65; Corporations (for-profit), $255; Sustaining, $105 (individuals or non-profits); Lifetime (individuals) $1,100. Periodical postage paid at Sorrento Louisiana and additional mailing offices. Twenty-five percent of dues is designated for subscription to World Aquaculture magazine. POSTMASTER Please send address changes to World Aquaculture Society, PO Box 397, Sorrento, LA 70778-0397 USA. ©2023, The World Aquaculture Society. W RLD AQUACULTURE VOL. 54 NO. 2 JUNE 2023 15 FAO Technical Reviews Special Issue of the Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 16 Professional Awards at Aquaculture America 2023 18 Student Awards at Aquaculture America 2023 20 Diversity and Inclusion in U.S. Aquaculture: What the U.S. Aquaculture Society and Others are Doing to Promote Diversity within the Aquaculture Sector Angela Caporelli, D. Allen Pattillo, Eric Saillant, Abigail Bockus, Adriane Michaelis, Gulnihal Ozbay, George Brooks, Rebecca Lochmann, Lonnie Gonsalves, Carla Schubiger and Steven Hughes 23 More Than Training: Workforce Development Programs to Meet the Needs of Employers and Employees Jamie Anderson, Jimmy Avery, Imani Black, Christian Brayden, David Cerino, Michael Ciaramella, Azure Cygler, Carissa Maurin, Bryan Snyder, LaDon Swann and M. Scarlett Tudor 28 Production of Nile Tilapia in Traditional Ponds Stocked at High and Low Density Compared to IPRS Esau Arana, Mildred Avila, Oscar Botero and Jesse Chappell 33 Year-round Pond Production of Brine Shrimp Artemia Biomass in Thailand: An Example of a Circular Economy Anand Tunsutapanich, Banchong Nissagavanich, Tanan Sanggontanagit, Montakan Tamtin, Kazi Ahmed Kabir and Patrick Sorgeloos 36 Brine Shrimp Artemia Pond Culture in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh Muhammad Meezanur Rahman and Patrick Sorgeloos 41 Strategies for Conservation and Promotion of Small Indigenous Freshwater Fish Species D.N. Chattopadhyay and R.N. Mandal 47 The Secret Powers of Sea Cucumbers Emaline M. Montgomery and Christopher M. Pearce 51 From Guts to Glory: Supporting Aquaculture with Discarded Grouper Gonads from the Florida Capture Fishery Patrick H. Rice and Caeley V. Flowers 57 Opportunities for Salmon and Trout Aquaculture Development in the USA Inna Golfand 62 A Novel Approach for Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) Igal Magen 66 Antimicrobial Peptides: A Closer Look at Their Classification and Function Raja Aadil Hussain Bhat, Irfan Ahmad Bhat, Dar Jaffer Yousuf and Mir Ishfaq Nazir COVER: Adult Artemia grown in salt ponds in Bangladesh being bagged for transport to shrimp hatcheries. See story, page 36. (CONTENTS CONTINUED ON PAGE 2)

2 JUNE 2023 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG Contents (continued) 2 Editor’s Note 3 President’s Column 5 USAS Chapter Report 6 Asian Pacific Chapter Report 8 African Chapter Report Editor’s Note 10 Korean Chapter Report 13 Latin American and Caribbean Chapter Report 70 Conference Calendar 71 Future Conferences and Expositions 72 Membership Application This is my last issue as Editor-in-Chief of World Aquaculture. It has been a privilege to serve WAS as editor of this magazine for these last 11+ years, with this my 46th issue. Since leaving academia in 2006 and starting a career as a freelance consultant, being editor of the magazine has been an important part of my portfolio and has given me the opportunity to maintain my professional network within WAS and the aquaculture world at large. I’m very grateful to the Society for that. I want to use this last Editor’s Note to offer thanks to particular individuals who have helped make this happen. First, producing the magazine is a team effort and, although the ultimate responsibility falls to the Editor-in-Chief, there are others working behind the scenes to make the magazine what it is. On the front end, thanks to Mary Nickum, now the longest serving member of the magazine staff in its history, for recruiting articles and getting them into shape for final editing. Thank you to Linda Noble, our fabulous layout editor, who has a special gift for making the magazine look professional and snappy. It’s an understatement to say that I could not have done my job without her artistry, flair, humor and can-do attitude. And although not “officially” part of the magazine team, WAS Executive Director John Cooksey has been instrumental in securing advertising for the magazine that is an important source of revenue. Thanks John! Appreciation also goes out to WAS Webmaster George McKee, who posts the magazine contents on the WAS website. Thanks are also due to people I consider to be special supporters of the magazine and my work with it. They include Sandy Shumway, Lou D’Abramo, Patrick Sorgeloos, George Lockwood and Craig Browdy. Your comments and feedback have been most welcome along the way. Thanks too to the hundreds of authors and contributors who have submitted articles to the magazine during my tenure. Ultimately it is your work that has made the magazine what it is. Special thanks to Rodrigue Yossa for his excellent series of interviews with prominent WAS members and others on aquaculture professionalism. Thanks to those who have submitted multiple articles over the years, including Dan Benetti, Meghan Davis, Barry Costa-Pierce, Claude Boyd, Kazi Kabir and Janice Ragaza. Finally, I would like to thank the many WAS presidents and chapter presidents who have diligently provided columns to the magazine every quarter. I believe I came very close to having full participation in every issue. I’m proud of that and appreciate the efforts of these leaders. One of the changes I brought to the magazine was taking a page for myself in each issue to write an editorial about a topic that I thought would be of interest to WAS members and was relevant or timely. Some were easier to write than others, but it fulfilled a personal goal of learning something new every day and I enjoyed sharing what I considered to be important topics and themes that affect our lives as professional aquaculturists or global aquaculture more broadly. It is my hope that some of these may have spurred you to action or some personal change, but at least were of interest. The magazine has changed from a newsletter to a full-length magazine, first in print only, then print and online, and now the magazine is changing again to become online only through the WAS website. I see that the Board has taken the decision to make access to the magazine open to all, a change from access to WAS members only. Although these changes have nothing to do with my decision to relinquish my editorship of the magazine, it does seem that the timing is propitious for my exit. Incoming editor Greg Lutz will be able to put his imprint on the magazine as it goes through these transformations. Change is good! Producing the magazine for WAS had its challenges. The most severe was an outbreak of plagiarism that we subsequently worked hard to stay aware and defend. We had some technical issues with printing covers that most readers would probably not see. Selecting covers was a perpetual source of anxiety, but we almost always had compelling images, often of “people doing aquaculture.” At the end of the day, the magazine is yet another example of what WAS does for its members — conferences, the journal and the magazine — to meet the mission of being a broker for credible scientific information. I now join a small and exclusive group of Emeritus Editors of the magazine, including Dave Aiken, who started it all, and Bob Stickney, my predecessor. Several people have congratulated me on my retirement, assuming that relinquishing editorship of the magazine can be equated with the end of my professional career. I enjoy my work as a freelance consultant and intend to explore opportunities to continue in our profession, at least for the foreseeable future. And as a WAS Fellow, I’ll always be involved with the Society. I am not likely to attend as many conferences as in the past, but I do hope our paths will cross in the future. Farewell World Aquaculture readers. — John A. Hargreaves, Editor-in-Chief Thanks and Farewell

WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • JUNE 2023 3 President’s Column This column is being written on a flight out of Darwin, after an incredible World Aquaculture 2023 conference and exhibition. There were 1,394 people attending, bringing an enthusiastic hum of conversation everywhere as people reconnected with common interest in ‘Supporting Strength in Aquaculture.’ Not only did WA2023 consider the latest in technical developments, the meeting also brought focus to the wellbeing of the people involved in aquaculture. Thank you to the sponsors, exhibitors, speakers, participants, conference management team, and Steering and Regional Organizing Committee members. Congratulations to the Student travel and Spotlight award winners from WA23: Jessica Hintzsche, Charles Sutherland, and Flavia Bandero Hoffling. I’m still savoring the fine seafood provided by local aquaculture companies. Congratulations and welcome to incoming WAS Officers and Board members who took office in Darwin: David Cline as President-Elect; Rumaitha Al Busaidi as Secretary; Shivaun Leonard, Etienne Hinrichsen and Yahira Piedrahita as Directors. Sincere thanks to outgoing Officers and Directors, Antonio Garza de Yta, Kathleen Hartman, Marco Saroglia, Guillaume Drillet and David Cline (changing role on Board). It has been and remains an honor to serve and support the Society and members together with such passionate people. In Darwin, the Board were impressed with developments across the Chapters and initiatives underway to increase connection and communication with members. In recent months, WAS has an improved financial position, due to the success of recent conferences. We are focused on a balance of using resources to improve communication of aquaculture science, technology and innovation and increasing financial reserves to allow the Society to weather unexpected future events. Thanks once again to John Hargreaves, who is handing the baton of Editor-in-Chief of World Aquaculture to Greg Lutz. This is John’s last magazine issue and we are grateful for his unwavering commitment to sharing real-world aquaculture news and challenges. This is my last column as President and it is with pleasure that I share this column with incoming WAS President, Humberto Villarreal. I look forward to meeting you at a future WAS event. — Jennifer Blair, Immediate Past-President In recent months, WAS has an improved financial position, due to the success of recent conferences. We are focused on a balance of using resources to improve communication of aquaculture science, technology and innovation and increasing financial reserves to allow the Society to weather unexpected future events. My first contribution to World Aquaculture as President of WAS occurs 40 years after I first arrived in Australia to begin my postgraduate studies in aquaculture bioenergetics at the University of Queensland. Since that time, aquaculture has consolidated as a major player in supplying high-quality protein to the world and it will continue to play a major role in meeting the nutritional demands of the global population, contributing to food security worldwide. This is a significant challenge that requires input from all stakeholders, including suppliers, farmers, processors, distributors and government officials, but also from scientists and technology innovators. For WAS, this is of particular importance, as we are looking to consolidate our efforts to bridge the gap between knowledge-based technology and production, by bringing up-to-date information to our members. To that end, we continue to support the reinvigoration process of the Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, which has now reached a very relevant impact factor of 3.4. Our most recent JWAS publication is a Special Issue containing eight major review articles in collaboration with FAO arising from the latest Global Conference on Aquaculture Millennium+20 held in Shanghai, China. The WAS Board has approved World Aquaculture magazine becoming an online periodical open to all stakeholders and interested parties. This means that everyone worldwide will now be able to read the excellent articles from our members and be up to date with news from the Society and all our regional Chapters. Our conferences continue to be the most important aquaculture events worldwide and we are looking for ways to make them more relevant with special sessions, debates, panel discussions and associated events. Students are a major point of interest for the Society, as the future of the industry depends on a strong nucleus of knowledgeable people. In Darwin, the Board approved the option for all students to access free membership of WAS. Students can become members through the WAS website. We will be making a stronger effort to bring more students to our conferences, with the help of our valued sponsors. One example is the upcoming Prof. Addison Lawrence Award for studies in nutrition, supported by Ziegler. The Honors and Awards Committee did an excellent selection job this year, so I would like to congratulate our new award recipients Dr. Clive Jones and Ms. Anoushka Concepcion, who received the WAS Industry Impact Award, Dr. Juan Pablo Lazo received recognition as a Fellow of the Society, and Professor Roy Douglas Palmer becomes the latest recipient of the Honorary Life Award. Congratulations to all of them. The Society is very proud to honor your accomplishments. As we move forward, please feel free to contact me and our Chapter Presidents to bring your ideas as to how to improve our Society. We have a strong line-up of conferences, so I hope to be able to meet you at one of our events soon. Cheers. — Humberto Villarreal, President


WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • JUNE 2023 5 Contact Extru-Tech today at 785-284-2153 or visit us online at KEEP IT SINGLE. SINGLE SCREW MULTIPLE MARKETS SINGLE SCREW EXTRUSION SYSTEM OPTIMIZES FLEXIBILITY AND MARKET OPPORTUNITIES Optimize the return on your capital investment with a single screw extrusion system. Buy one system and cost-effectively deliver product to multiple market opportunities. • One system capable of economy up to super premium fresh meat petfood • Aquatic feeds that range from floating to sinking shrimp feed • Capitalize on high margin petfood treat opportunities • Significantly lower operating cost per ton versus competitive systems As the chart below demonstrates, an Extru-Tech Single Screw Extrusion System provides all the flexibility and production efficiencies at around half the cost of competitive extrusion systems with high operating costs. PREMIUM PETFOOD PETFOOD SNACKS AQUA FEED P.O. Box 8 100 Airport Road Sabetha, KS 66534, USA Phone: 785-284-2153 Fax: 785-284-3143 Capital Investment Extru-Tech Solution The Competition Operating Costs Ingredient Flexibility Complexity Operating Cost ($/M Ton) 1.0 1.0 Excellent Low 1.08 2.5 1.60 Excellent High 2.80 vs ET-337F.indd 1 1/28/21 8:31 AM We have a few initiatives that we are working on. The Promotion and Membership Committee will be sending out a new feedback questionnaire. This survey was last administered in 2018, and the feedback was valuable for scheduling webinar topics of interest to the membership. This survey will again ask respondents to consider the learning opportunities and professional development needs they see as essential or critical to their disciplines. Please take the time to provide your insights on this questionnaire. Director Mick Walsh is heading up a group to develop a Professional Fish Culturist Certification program. She has united the AFS Fish Culture Section, the National Aquaculture Association, and USAS to add cross-society prestige to the certification program. I will provide more details later as things unfold. Director Adriane Michaelis is leading the effort for a continuing education course to be held at Aquaculture America in San Antonio. Again, as more information is available, I will pass it along. — Anita Kelly, President U.S. Aquaculture Society It is hard to believe we are into the first quarter of my year as President. I want to thank the members who have graciously volunteered to serve on various committees. We have successfully filled all the committees with members. Just as a reminder, there are numerous opportunities for USAS members to engage in leadership and service to the Chapter and WAS. I urge you to consider service to USAS sometime during your career. An engaged membership makes a strong society. With that said, here is my plug for volunteers to judge student presentations. Since USAS provides several awards to students, our student presentations have increased. Judging presentations depends on volunteers who will be at the meeting. Last year we had difficulty finding enough volunteers to judge and as a result, the majority of the judging fell to just a couple of individuals. The more volunteers we have, the better the judging. We strive to have a minimum of two but prefer to have three judges for each presentation. Please consider being a judge at the next meeting. CHAPTER REPORTS

6 JUNE 2023 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG CHAPTER REPORTS Asian Pacific Chapter Almost five months after World Aquaculture 2022 in Singapore, we met again at the Darwin conference, despite most of the regular Asian Pacific Chapter activities still being conducted online. However, we partnered with a few organizations on inperson events and planned a few physical conferences and workshops for 2023. The APC website was redesigned to enable more efficient communication, with updated content and more effective social media feeds. The APC partnered with an international Master Class titled “Advanced Nutrition and Feed Technology for 21st Century Aquaculture,” organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand, from 17-21 April 2023. The plans for the next edition of the Aquaculture Innovation Ideation Challenge (AIIC) are progressing with more industry support. As part of the plans to strengthen our presence in the Asia Pacific region, we are planning several regional workshops on emerging technological issues. For example, a regional Workshop in Cambodia is being discussed with the Fisheries Administration under the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, to be held in December 2023, which could be the first WAS-affiliated event in this emerging aquaculture country. We are following up on options for organizing a regional workshop in Nepal. During my visit to Kathmandu in April, this was discussed with the leaders of the Nepal Aquaculture Society. We plan to have a focused workshop on coldwater aquaculture in Kathmandu this year. We have also started planning for an APC technical workshop in Ho Chi Minh City in 2023, focused on improving the aquaculture industry’s competitiveness in Vietnam. These events will help the APC play a more proactive role in developing a shared collaborative platform of key industry players in Asia-Pacific aquaculture. The APC will collaborate with three international conferences in 2023. The 10th International Conference on Fisheries and Aquaculture will be organized in Bali, Indonesia, from 24-26 October 2023. This partnership will assist WAS-APC in expanding its presence in the Asia-Pacific region. The 11th International Fisheries Symposium (IFS) 2023, organized by the ASEAN-Fisheries Education Network and hosted by AIT in Bangkok, Thailand, will be held from 22-24 November 2023. Partnering with the ASEAN-FEN, a network of over 20 universities offering fisheries and aquaculture programs in the ASEAN region, will be a valuable opportunity for the APC to connect with these universities. The Giant Prawn 2023 Conference, organized by AIT in Bangkok, will be a three-day conference from 27-29 November, focused on the aquaculture of freshwater prawns. WAS had previously associated with this conference when held in India (2011), Thailand (2017) and China (2019). The APC will continue to associate with this conference. To promote membership in the APC, we partnered with AIT to offer WAS membership for those attending the workshops organized by AIT. In this model, the APC collaborated with AIT in the recent Workshop on Aquaculture Nutrition and Feed Technology. The APC will work this way by partnering with various other workshops/ training programs planned by partner organizations this year. The APC is considering ways to help better students and young professionals find suitable careers. With this goal in mind, the APC will work with the South-East Asian Fisheries and Aquaculture Student (SEAFAS) Association, formed in Indonesia and launched by Indonesia’s Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries. The next Asian-Pacific Aquaculture Conference (APA2024) will be hosted in Surabaya, Indonesia, from 11-14 June 2024. Let’s collaborate to make this conference even bigger. — Krishna Salin, President Aquaculture Ecology Shuang-Lin Dong, Xiang-Li Tian, Qin-Feng Gao, Yun-Wei Dong, editors This book introduces aquaculture ecology as a science of the interaction between commercial aquatic organisms as well as their farming activities and the environment, including the rationales of building and management of aquaculture systems. This book covers productivity and carrying capacity, effects of cyclical fluctuation of environmental factors on aquatic organisms, biological control of water quality, structural optimization of aquaculture systems and ecological prevention of disease. In the last chapter, aquaculture production systems are introduced from multiple perspectives. The editors are from the Laboratory of Aquaculture Ecology, College of Fisheries, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China. This book has been designed to provide a stimulating and informative text for researchers in aquaculture, fisheries as well as hydrobiology. The book is available in hard cover, as an Instant EPUB and as a pdf download from Springer. ISBN: 978-981-19-5486-3.


8 JUNE 2023 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG CHAPTER REPORTS As we began our new fiscal year in April, I thought it was imperative to reflect on the general trends of aquaculture development in Africa. There is no doubt that our service and deliverables do in some way contribute to the development trajectory of African aquaculture. I am thankful to the FAO Aquaculture Statistics Division for keeping us updated on trends and statistics. Here is where Africa stands at the moment, based on FAO aquaculture statistics from 2021. World aquaculture production in 2021 reached 126 million t live weight, which was up by 2.7 percent from 2020. The farm-gate value of global aquaculture now stands at a record US$296.5 billion. Aquaculture’s contribution to total fish production reached 49.9 percent in 2021. In Africa, although capture fisheries are still dominant, with an 82 percent share of total fish production in 2021, aquaculture continues to grow modestly, now taking up 18 percent, up from 12 percent in 2012. Total aquaculture production from Africa (excluding aquatic plants) was 2,322 million t in 2021 and is about 2.6 percent of the world total. About 92 percent of African aquaculture comes from inland aquaculture, although annual production has remained more or less static over the last five years or so. However, significant gains have been recorded in marine and coastal aquaculture, with a record increase of 157 percent since five years ago. Despite overall positive annual growth, it must be highlighted that the growth rate has been inconsistent, having fluctuated significantly over the last ten years with a high of 11 percent in 2016 and a low of 2.6 percent in 2021. Africa’s seaweed aquaculture, which formerly produced huge volumes of significance over the past decade, continues a downward trend, with a record low of 96,000 t in 2021 compared to a peak of over 200,000 t recorded in 2016. By far, Egypt remains the largest producer country in Africa, taking up nearly 68 percent of the continent’s aquaculture production (1.5 million t) in 2021. This is followed by Nigeria (276,000 t or 12 percent) and Uganda follows in third position (139,000 t or 6 percent), and then Ghana taking the fourth position (89,400 t or 4 percent). These four countries collectively produce 90 percent of total aquaculture production in Africa. Zambia, which is the fifth producer by volume overall, remains probably the fastest in terms of annual growth rate, with its production having increased threefold in a span of five years from 20,000 t in 2016 to over 64,000 t in 2021. Zimbabwe, which used to be among the top ten African producers over the last decade, sadly has lost its glory. This is largely due to the difficult economic situation of the country that has had a knock-on effect on doing business in aquaculture. Tunisia has made inroads in recent years, having significantly increased its annual production exponentially, almost entirely from marine aquaculture. The country remains one of the fastest growing aquaculture countries in Africa. South Africa has slightly improved its production in 2021, owing to an increase in shellfish production — largely driven by strong global markets. Tanzania and Rwanda are becoming important players in small- to medium-scale commercial aquaculture. This is largely attributable to investment models that seem to be working in East Africa, supported by a favorable policy environment. Other emerging countries performing fairly well include Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Mali and a few others. When I look at such numbers, I feel inspired that, through WAS and the African Chapter, our service to the aquaculture sector is contributing to paying some good dividends, in general. Of course, much more needs to be done to make Africa a strong global player — based on the strong potential we have across all fronts. There are a number of challenges we still need to address to ensure our aquaculture value chains are strong, competitive and sustainable in the long term. These range from physical, economic, geopolitical and social factors, which I will unpack in detail in one of my future columns. The Second Aquaculture Africa Conference (AFRAQ23) is coming up in Zambia on 13-16 November 2023. This will be the best place to be for many of our audience, as we aspire to learn more and connect with a diverse range of aquaculture players in Africa. Make sure you are booked to attend this event, cognizant that it is happening in the continent’s fastest-growing aquaculture producer country. Our biggest task this coming season is to promote the event extensively through various platforms to ensure maximum participation of aquaculture actors and exhibitors. The recently held Regional Conferences on Aquaculture in East Africa and West Africa (March and May 2023 respectively) were a general success. I am overly thankful to my regional directors, the WAS membership, partners and sponsors for pulling these through. Such regional meetings have become important in not only grouping local/regional membership together, but also as a platform to deliberate on some strategies to advance sustainable aquaculture in those geographical regions. We hope to have more regional conferences organized in Northwest Africa (Maghreb) and Central Africa in the coming year. A number of activities will be happening in the coming season. We endeavor to keep you updated and wherever possible seek your collaboration as we move along. We hope to have our annual Board and business meetings this June, remotely. We also desire to revitalize the WAS AC committees once again this season and also begin the process to elect some of our office bearers — the Regional Directors from East, West and North Africa. We also hope to advance the implementation of the new WAS AC student program and also review our membership recruitment drive processes in the African region through various means. The African Chapter also participated in the World Aquaculture 2023 Conference in Darwin, Australia, and the annual Board meeting. Let me end by thanking Dr. John A. Hargreaves, the outgoing Editor-in-Chief of World Aquaculture, for the good journey we have walked together in getting all these columns drafted and published. I understand John will be handing the baton to the new Editor, Dr. Greg Lutz, after more than 11 years of service to WAS. The process has been exciting and inspiring, as we utilized our column space to show WAS what we can offer through many programs and activities happening in the Chapter. We look forward to continued good working relationship with the new magazine editor. Thank you, John; you are simply the best! — John K. Walakira, President African Chapter


10 JUNE 2023 • WORLD AQUACULTURE • WWW.WAS.ORG CHAPTER REPORTS Korean Chapter Emergency Committee for the 2023-2024 Term Until now, the Korean Chapter (KC) has been trying to overcome the decline in chapter membership. Due to the recent COVID-19 situation, Chapter activities have not been carried out as intended. In addition, general business meetings have not been held for three years due to mandatory social distance regulations. During the pandemic, the 2021-22 election of officers was conducted by email vote, as recommended by the Senior Advisory Council (SAC), composed of Jeong-Yeol Lee, Seung-Cheol Charles Bai and Seok-Joong Kang. Currently, no officers have been elected for the 2023-2024 term. The current chapter situation was recognized as an emergency in which normal branch activities were challenging with the President’s efforts alone. Accordingly, the SAC decided to temporarily operate the KC by converting it into a four-member Emergency Committee, including three members of the SAC and Immediate Past-president Ik Kyo Chung, to overcome the current situation. The Emergency Committee will manage KC activities as a collective system to carry out chapter work under a coordinated strategy. In particular, the Emergency Committee will strive to restore the number of members to normal and prepare improvement plans through revision of the bylaws and put the chapter on a standard track until Professor Han-Kyu Lim, recommended as the President of the 2025-2026 term, begins his term. NIFS Hosts International Seaweed Symposium The National Institute of Fisheries Science (NIFS; President Dong-Shik Woo) held an international symposium on the present and future of seaweed research and industry for development of the seaweed industry and international cooperation in April. About 50 people attended the event, including academia, government officials, related industrial workers, research staff and representatives of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). The event was held as a series of research presentations, each followed by a panel discussion. The main contents were 1) Korea’s seaweed industry and research — Is it a crisis or an opportunity? (Professor Han-Gil Choi, Wonkwang University, President of the Phycological Society of Korea), 2) The present and future of Korean seaweed aquaculture and breeding research to respond to climate change (Dr. Eunkyung Hwang, NIFS), 3) Climate change from the perspective of WWF in the US and the kelp aquaculture industry for the public interest (Bailey Moritz, US WWF), 4) Fostering the seaweed industry in the UK (Mollie Gupta, UK WWF). During the panel discussion, there was a heated discussion among domestic and foreign industry, academia, government and research officials on the development direction of Korea and the global seaweed industry. Participants agreed on the need for international cooperation in developing seaweed breeding and aquaculture technologies. As the world’s largest non-profit international nature conservation organization, WWF is researching and supporting sustainable future food resources, recently paying attention to the importance of the seaweed industry. WWF visited Korea, a leading country in seaweed farming, to discuss cooperation. Seaweed is becoming a target of cooperation to secure a supply chain as future food and industrial raw material, attracting attention as a potential source of blue carbon to respond to global climate change and realize carbon neutrality. Accordingly, the international community, including the EU and the United States, is rapidly introducing support policies for seaweed farming. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is focusing on seaweed by promoting the preparation of a seaweed farming manual. Marine Gardening (Sea Arbor) Day The Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF) held the 11th Marine Gardening (Sea Arbor) Day Ceremony under the theme “Under the Sea We Draw; The Sea Forest We Dream Of” in Jeju in May. The event was held to announce the achievements of the ten-year undersea forest creation and to strengthen cooperation with private companies to expand the undersea forest. Marine Gardening (Sea Arbor) Day on May 10 is a day to plant algae in the sea and it means revitalizing the creation of undersea forests, like forests on land, by planting seaweeds to revive the desertified sea. Around 290 ha of undersea forest has been created by 2022, which is considered to increase the health of the coastal ecosystem, resolve tidal greening and reduce carbon dioxide. At the ceremony, the MOF, Hyundai Motors and Hyosung Group signed a business agreement to cooperate with the undersea forest blue carbon (carbon absorbed by the marine ecosystem). This business agreement is meaningful because private companies will participate in the undersea forest creation project for the first time. Through this agreement, companies interested in social contribution activities and environmental protection are expected to participate. Development of High-tech Genetic Ability Prediction Method for Flounder The NIFS has analyzed hundreds of thousands of flounder to obtain genome information. It developed a cutting-edge technique that can predict in advance how much the flounder will grow from fertilized eggs and how well it will withstand disease. Unlike existing selective breeding techniques, which requires 1.5-2 years to grow flounder to adult size to determine growth rate and disease resistance, selective breeding from fertilized eggs is now possible with the development of the advanced prediction technique. The technique has about 17 percent more predictive value for growth (weight) traits than conventional selective breeding techniques in the accuracy of predicting genetic ability for each trait of flatfish and prediction of disease resistance (VHS, viral hemorrhagic sepsis) traits. The levels were about 14 percent higher, making it possible to quickly develop varieties that grow well and are disease resistant. As a result, this technique is expected to dramatically improve breeding efficiency and shorten the breeding period, helping to strengthen the industrial effect and international competitiveness of aquatic seed development. Korean Chapter

WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • JUNE 2023 11 CHAPTER REPORTS Strategies for Achieving Carbon Neutrality in Land-based Fish Aquaculture Dr. Chang Mo Ma, Project Leader and Head of the Fisheries Policy Research Department, Korea Maritime Institute (KMI), presented “A Study on Strategies for Achieving Carbon Neutrality in the Aquaculture Industry - Focusing on Land-based Fish Aquaculture” at the Marine and Fisheries session of the 2023 KMI Policy Research Performance Report in Sejong in April. He suggested response strategies for the aquaculture industry in the era of carbon neutrality, such as integrated carbon emissions management. The realization of carbon neutrality to respond to the climate crisis is emerging as a global need. He stressed the need to work towards the realization of carbon neutrality actively. The specific details of the response strategy for the aquaculture industry in the era of carbon neutrality proposed by KMI were: 1) integrated management of carbon emissions from land farms, 2) Data, Network, and Artificial intelligence (DNA)-based onshore fish farm carbon reduction, 3) development of low-carbon feed for fish farming, 4) improving farmed fish distribution inefficiency, and 5) diversification of renewable energy supply. Lastly, he insisted on maintaining the aquaculture industry with sustainable growth and being chosen by consumers in the global trend of realizing carbon neutrality. The aquaculture industry must achieve its goal of securing the highest level of carbon competitiveness, which produces minor carbon emissions per kilogram of all animal protein sources. He proposed establishing a low-carbon aquaculture product certification foundation and production system. It is also necessary to take a mid- to long-term approach, such as managing carbon emissions by farming stage and production method. Canada Approves the Korean System of Oyster Sanitary Certification As a result of an equivalence evaluation of the Korea Shellfish Sanitation Program (KSSP) conducted by Canadian sanitation authorities, Korea will now be able to export frozen oysters to Canada. The KSSP is a comprehensive sanitation management plan for shellfish for export, established to ensure the safety of shellfish exported to the United States and the European Union and to meet the sanitation management standards required by the importing country. Canada notified Korea that, if it wants to continue exporting frozen oysters, it must prove that its shellfish hygiene management system is at the same level as the Safe Food for Canadians Act (SFCA) of Canada, which came into force in 2019. Afterward, Canada reviewed prior written data on the KSSP and interviewed staff on sanitation management in designated sea areas, frozen oyster processing facilities and overall laboratory operation status. The Canadian health authorities determined that the KSSP was being adequately operated and officially delivered a final opinion that frozen oysters were suitable for continued export to Canada. This equivalence evaluation is the Canadian health authorities’ first official recognition of Korea’s frozen oyster hygiene management system. It is expected to serve as an opportunity to expand oyster exports to Canada. U.S. FDA Approves Korean System of Shellfish Hygiene Management A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) inspection team has concluded that Korea’s shellfish hygiene management had made significant progress over the past six years, so oyster exports to the US are expected to expand. The FDA recognized the sanitary management of shellfish in Korea. The FDA inspected Korea’s shellfish hygiene management system and tentatively evaluated that there had been significant progress in shellfish hygiene management in Korea over the past six years. By the ‘Korea-US Shellfish Sanitation Agreement,’ signed in 1972 and the ‘Memorandum of Understanding on Sanitary Control of Shellfish Exported to the US,’ renewed in 2015, the US FDA conducts regular sanitary inspections of shellfish production areas in Korea every two years and evaluates the inspection results and the implementation of improvement measures for non-conforming items to determine whether to continue exporting Korean shellfish to the US. This inspection was conducted for the first time in six years since 2017 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The FDA inspection team conducted a thorough on-site inspection of the overall hygiene management system for shellfish exported to the US, including managing hazardous factors that can cause food poisoning and hygiene management in export facilities. As a result, the FDA inspection team determined that all items of the shellfish hygiene management system in Korea were suitable for exporting shellfish to the US. For comprehensive hygiene management of shellfish in the future, detailed recommendations were presented, such as the replacement of ultraviolet disinfection devices at sewage treatment plants before the time of shellfish export to the US, periodic hygiene checks and record management of port and inlet toilets and seaside public restrooms. Korea will be notified about the FDA’s final evaluation results two to three months after the inspection team returns to Korea. Based on the results of this evaluation, oyster exports, currently valued at about US$80 million/year, are expected to expand. The 12th Gim’s Day (Laver Day) Ceremony The MOF held the 12th Gim’s Day Ceremony with officials from the Gim (laver) Industry, including the Korea Gim Industry Association Goheung-gun, Jeollanam-do in April. The Korea Gim (Laver) Industry Association designated lunar January 15 as Gim’s Day to commemorate the achievement of $100 million in Gim exports in 2010 and to continue the tradition of Wrapping a Fortune with Gim (laver) on New Year’s Full Moon Day. The “Gim’s Day” celebration has been held every year since 2011 to enhance the pride of Gim farmers and revitalize the industry. About 2,000 people, including the Korea Gim Industry Association workers, the MOF, and local government officials, attended this year’s ceremony. The event awarded commendations to those who contributed to leading the export of Korean fisheries products by recording $650 million in Gim (laver) exports with 70 percent of the global market share despite global logistics difficulties last year. There were various side events including a laver cooking performance, an exhibition of the nation’s top ten Gim brands and a promotional event for local specialties in Goheung-gun. Future Strategic Item Selection Workshop for the Aquaculture Industry The MOF held the ‘Future Strategic Item Selection Workshop (CONTINUED ON PAGE 13)


WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • JUNE 2023 13 CHAPTER REPORTS It seems like yesterday we were planning for LACQUA23 in Panama and now our LACC Chapter is already focused on Medellín, Colombia for LACQUA24. LACQUA23 in Panamá City was a very nice conference. There were 1189 total attendees from 48 countries, including 58 students. Our academic program consisted of 189 abstracts for oral presentations that were organized in 22 different sessions, including a very detailed one about the perspectives for aquaculture in Panama. Our trade show included 65 booths as well. In general, it was nice to get together again in person. Our conference gave us also the opportunity to recognize Dr. Alejandro Flores Nava, who recently retired as Main Fisheries Officer for the Latin American and Caribbean Region of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. I personally witnessed in the past month several occasions on our continent when aquaculture experts and organizations came together to recognize Alejandro for all the excellent work done. For sure, we will miss his deep knowledge of aquaculture on our continent, and mainly, one of the strongest voices for small-scale aquaculture including the so-called aquaculturists for self-consumption. Now retired, we will find a way in our LACC Chapter to keep Alejandro involved in our continual efforts to progress and include small-scale farmers. Our Board of Directors met during LACQUA23, analyzing among other issues, ways to consolidate our membership on our continent. We are always looking to increase the inclusion of students, women and small-scale producers. Consequently, the Board decided to incorporate a student representative as a Board Member, selected from the host country of our LACQUA Conferences, a year in advance. Hence, a Colombian student representative is now being selected who will help us getting a much stronger involvement of students in LACQUA24, including special sessions focused on students’ work and interests. The FAO’s Subcommittee on Aquaculture recently recommended to strengthen worldwide studies and projects that incorporate women in aquaculture. This really goes along very well with our Chapter efforts, and I’m sure we will find many synergies and opportunities for joint work. In the case of LACQUA24, for example, having on our Board of Directors Dras. Adriana Muñoz and Paola Barato, long-time successful representatives of women in aquaculture and particularly Dra. Muñoz a strong speaker of indigenous aquaculture, assures us that we will find ways on our Board to focus our continental work on the fair inclusion and representation of women and indigenous farmers. The Colombian Aquaculture Congress for 2024 will also take place in Medellín, organized by the University of Antioquia and the CES University of Medellín. The idea is to unite this congress as was done with LACQUA18 in Bogota, resulting in a bigger participation of the Colombian academy, a greater number of students and submitted summaries. We hope to see all of you in Medellín, Colombia, September 24-27 for LACQUA24. Please start planning. — Francisco Javier Martinez Cordero, President Latin American and Caribbean Chapter KOREA, continued from page 11 for Aquaculture Industry’ in Seoul in April to discuss strategic items to be fostered by 2030. To leap forward with a global item like ‘Gim (laver),’ the MOF plans to provide intensive support by preparing a development strategy spanning the entire industrial cycle from processing and distribution to consumption and export. After public preference surveys and stakeholder opinion collections, the Strategic Item Development Plan for the Aquaculture Industry was announced in December last year. Although the production of aquaculture products continues to increase, there is a limit to the creation of added value due to limited demand for some items and a raw material-oriented production system. Accordingly, the MOF selected aquaculture products with high growth potential as future strategic items. In this workshop, about 50 industry, academia, and research experts from the NIFS and KMI gathered to comprehensively diagnose growth potential, aquaculture technology level and export conditions by item and strategic items such as domestic and overseas consumption trends. Based on the selection criteria prepared at this workshop, the MOF finalized strategic items through public preference surveys and gathering opinions from stakeholders such as fishermen and fishery products industries. The future aquaculture industry strategic items to be selected are expected to not only revitalize the domestic aquaculture industry but also contribute to the development of overseas markets and vitalization of exports of aquatic food items. Korea-Vietnam Cooperation The NIFS and the Vietnamese Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) signed a Record of Decision (RoD) in Seoul in April. It is a part of the Vietnam Official Development Assistance (ODA) Project Productivity Improvement Technical Cooperation Project in northern Vietnam totaling KRW 3 billion. The Vietnam ODA project plans to stabilize the shellfish aquaculture production system and modernize seed production facilities in Nam Dinh and Ninh Binh, northern Vietnam, while dispatching Korean experts to conduct technology transfer and capacity-building training to strengthen the capacity of Vietnamese aquaculture experts. In addition, comprehensive cooperation plans for developing the maritime and fisheries sector of the two countries and ODA projects were discussed. — Ik Kyo Chung, President


WWW.WAS.ORG • WORLD AQUACULTURE • JUNE 2023 15 The Journal of the World Aquaculture Society is excited to highlight a series of thematic technical reviews that were developed with the leading author in each field following the Global Conference on Aquaculture Millennium+20 (GCA+20), which was held from September 22–25, 2021 in Shanghai, the People’s Republic of China. Recognizing that aquaculture is critically important to sustainable development and global food systems, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) selected technical themes that these eight reviews present in this special issue. FAO Technical Reviews Special Issue of the Journal of the World Aquaculture Society These themes and reviews support FAO’s Blue Transformation Roadmap of providing adequate aquatic food for a growing world population. The reviews focus on multiple key issues that are essential for aquaculture and its future progress. Details are provided on current and future trends, challenges, and opportunities and these reviews lay the foundation for the support of a vision for sustainable aquaculture as outlined in the Shanghai Declaration on Aquaculture for Food and Sustainable Development. Table of Contents Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 54(2) Special Issue: FAO/NACA GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON AQUACULTURE MILLENNIUM+20 - AQUACULTURE FOR FOOD AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THEMATIC REVIEWS Guest Editors: Graham Mair, Matthias Halwart, Yuan Derun and Barry Costa-Pierce Editorial Mair, G.C., Halwart, M., Derun, Y., & Costa Pierce, B.A. 2023. A decadal outlook for global aquaculture. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 54(2):196-205. Review Papers Verdegem, M., Buschmann, A. H., Latt, U. W., Dalsgaard, A. J. T., & Lovatelli, A. 2023. The contribution of aquaculture systems to global aquaculture production. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 54(2):206-250. Troell, M., Costa-Pierce, B., Stead, S., Cottrell, R. S., Brugere, C., Farmery, A. K., Little, D. C., Strand, Å., Pullin, R., Soto, D., Beveridge, M., Salie, K., Dresdner, J., MoraesValenti, P., Blanchard, J., James, P., Yossa, R., Allison, E., Devaney, C., & Barg, U. 2023. Perspectives on aquaculture’s contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals for improved human and planetary health. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 54(2):251-342. Glencross, B., Fracalossi, D. M., Hua, K., Izquierdo, M., Mai, K., Øverland, M., Robb, D., Roubach, R., Schrama, J., Small, B., Tacon, A., Valente, L. M. P., Viana, M.-T., Xie, S., & Yakupityage, A. 2023. Harvesting the benefits of nutritional research to address global challenges in the 21st century. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 54(2):343-363. Sonesson, A. K., Hallerman, E., Humphries, F., Hilsdorf, A. W. S., Leskien, D., Rosendal, K., Bartley, D., Hu, X., Garcia Gomez, R., & Mair, G. C. 2023. Sustainable management and improvement of genetic resources for aquaculture. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 54(2):364-395. Subasinghe, R., Alday-Sanz, V., Bondad-Reantaso, M. G., Jie, H., Shinn, A. P., & Sorgeloos, P. 2023. Biosecurity: Reducing the burden of disease. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(2), 396-425. Jolly, C. M., Nyandat, B., Yang, Z., Ridler, N., Matias, F., Zhang, Z., Murekezi, P., & Menezes, A. 2023. Dynamics of aquaculture governance. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 54(2):426-480. Brugere, C., Bansal, T., Kruijssen, F., & Williams, M. 2023. Humanizing aquaculture development: Putting social and human concerns at the center of future aquaculture development. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 54(2):481-525. Ababouch, L., Nguyen, K. A. T., Castro de Souza, M. and FernandezPolanco, J. 2023. Value chains and market access for aquaculture products. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 54(2):526-552. — Kenneth Cain, Executive Editor, JWAS