A study on the major fisheries was conducted from August 2017 to April 2018 in coastal provinces of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Results showed that the gillnets, trawl nets, and stow nets were the main fishing gears, and accounted for the highest number of fishing boats and yields. All the fishing gears are exploited for the whole year round. The results also indicated that the gillnets fishery is the largest scale (10.99 tons). The most effective fishing activity of gillnets fishy was the highest profit (298 million VND per year) (p <0.05). However, the highest fishing yield (20.42 tons/year) was found in trawlers, but it had the lowest rate of return (0.45 times) and the trash-fish portion accounted for the highest ratio (38.4%). Although the stow nets had the highest rate of return (1.41 times), they were the lowest yield (7.17 tons/year) and a high portion of trash fish. The high proportion of trash fish may affect fisheries resources. For the sustainable development of the fisheries in the Mekong Delta, the development and management of fisheries resources should be promoted, supporting fishermen to access low-interest rates to invest in capture production, and training fishermen to use advanced fishing gear to increase their fishing efficiency.