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Add To Calendar 26/02/2016 10:45:0026/02/2016 11:05:00America/ChicagoAquaculture 2016TREATED COAL MINE WATER FOR AQUACULTURE: OBSERVATIONS FROM TWELVE YEARS OF RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION   Vendome BThe World Aquaculture Societyjohnc@was.orgfalseanrl65yqlzh3g1q0dme13067DD/MM/YYYY


Kenneth J. Semmens
Aquaculture Research Center
Kentucky State University
Frankfort KY  40601  

A research and demonstration flowing water system drawing treated coal mine water was installed near Arnettesville, WV in 2002.  The water was pumped from a mine, treated with hydrated lime, aerated, and stored in a 7 ha impoundment.   Initial studies showed that ionic strength and the electrostatic interaction between ions result in acceptable active free ion concentrations even when analytic concentrations are above recommended levels.  

They also showed that trace metals Mercury, Lead, Chromium, Copper, Arsenic, Selenium, Cadmium were below detectable limits in the water and in flesh of trout grown in the system.  

There were no failures of the treatment system impacting fish production during the 12 year interval.  In 2004 sediment shifted in the impoundment causing high turbidity and resulting in an outbreak of Aeromonas leading to mortality of 20% of trout in the system.   No other water related events impacted aquaculture production practices.  Volume of water storage in the impoundment was adequate to supply the flowing water aquaculture system during short periods when pumping from the mine ceased or when the mine water treatment system was not operational.

A wide variety of fish were grown in the system. Brook trout, rainbow trout, brown trout, striped bass, hybrid striped bass, channel catfish, brown bullheads, yellow perch, and koi carp, grew and survived well in the system.  Striped bass were grown to maturity.  Hybrid bluegill, largemouth bass and atlantic sturgeon did not grow well in the system.   Because of their performance and demand, trout and hybrid striped bass became the fish of choice and were well accepted at a farmers market and local restaurants.  

Heat exchange in the impoundment dictated that water temperature would vary from a maximum of about 27 C in the summer to low of 2 C in the winter.   Installation of a counter current heat exchanger where water from the mine exchanged heat with water discharged from the impoundment is desirable.   Even a small reduction in the maximum temperature will permit year round production of trout - especially the more heat tolerant Case Western strain of rainbow trout.

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